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Tutorial 2 Video Notes [Parkinson's].docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Joanne Nash

BIOB30 Tutorial 2 Video – Parkinson’s Disease  Parkinson's disease (also known as Parkinson's, Parkinson disease, or PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions.  PD is the most common cause of chronic progressive syndrome characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.  Among non motor symptoms are autonomic dysfunction and sensory and sleep difficulties.  Cognitive and neurobehavioral problems, including dementia, are common in the advanced stages of the disease.  PD usually appears around the age of 60, although there are young-onset cases.  PD = condition that slowly freezes the body  Prescribed drugs to “unlock” the limbs  side effects = twitching movements for which there is little treatment = no cure for PD yet  PD = missing dopamine cells which make this are dying = this is what leads to paralysis  1960’s = found a way to replace dopamine = L Dopa  mobility returned in PD patients!  BUT – L dopa had serious side effects = drug still gives mobility but the movements are no longer normal [introduction of involuntary movements]  PD = idiopathic disease (no known cause)  Young ppl with PD = the disease is more aggressive; their response to drug treatment is lost quickly and will develop side effects more rapidly than the elderly patients  Ecstasy or MDMA – allowed co-ordination for TIM  He knows it’s not practical – he only takes it twice a month maybe  Dangers of ecstasy = rarely fatal but can cause memory blackouts & depression  Researcher’s interested in Tim’s cause = b/c ecstasy increases serotonin and not dopamine levels in the brain  Dopamine & serotonin = neurotransmitters  High levels of serotonin = causes euphoria; nothing to do with movement  Researcher’s want to know why serotonin seems to be working for Tim  They conndcted 2 experiments: with & without ecstasy  In the 2 condition = ecstasy alone has unfrozen his limbs; although it alone doesn’t give him as much mobility as when it is taken in conjunction with L dopa = but it gives any mobility at all alone is surprising  Dopamine actually seems to be playing no part in the unfreezing process!!!  SUB-THALAMIC NUCLEUS = Unilateral destruction or disruption of the subthalamic nucleus – which can commonly occur via a small vessel stroke in patients with diabetes, hypertension, or a history of smoking – produces hemiballismus  Hemiballismus is a very rare movement disorder. It is five hundred times rarer than Parkinson's disease . Its effects can sometimes be severe enough to prevent patients [2] from being able to perform daily functions . It is usually associated with structural brain lesions but can occur with metabolic abnormalities. The symp[3]s can also decrease while the patient is asleep, unlike some movement disorders . BIOB30 - The SUB-THALAMIC NUCLEUS is hyperactive in a PD brain  so it is involved in PD! - This structure has no direction connection with dopamine but plays a crucial role in
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