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Biological Sciences

BIOB34 – May 2013 (AJE, University of Toronto, UTSC) Chapter 2 Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Cell Physiology Principles of Animal Physiology, 2e (Moyes/Schulte) 1) The first living organism, the progenote, gave rise to many characteristics frequently found in modern life-forms, including A) no need for a nucleus. B) ability to survive in anaerobic conditions. C) using only twenty amino acids in proteins. D) using sulfur as an energy source. 2) Which of the following types of energy is strictly potential energy? A) mechanical energy B) radiant energy C) chemical energy D) electrical energy 3) Once the activation energy has been transferred to a molecule, A) it has reached the transition state. B) it will always return to the substrate conformation. C) it will always move on to the product conformation. D) both A and C 4) What is the correct relationship between chemical reactions and temperature? A) All chemical reactions are endothermic, and therefore require warmer temperatures. B) Warmer temperatures provide the activation energy required to start chemical reactions. C) Warmer temperatures allow more energy to be released during a chemical reaction. D) Chemical reactions are not dependent on temperature at all. 5) Which of the following types of bonds is not based on attraction of one molecule for the other, but instead is based on an uncharged molecule's inability to form a bond with water? A) van der Waals interactions B) hydrogen bonds C) ionic bonds D) hydrophobic bonds 1 BIOB34 – May 2013 (AJE, University of Toronto, UTSC) 6) The correct term(s) for the most abundant liquid in which other molecules are dissolved is/are A) solvent. B) solute. C) solution. D) both A and C 7) Diffusion of a solute through a solution is decreased by an A) increased concentration gradient. B) increased size of molecule. C) increased diffusion coefficient. D) increased diffusion area. 8) What is the osmolarity of a solution containing 3 M MgCl 2nd 2 M glucose? A) 5 OsM B) 8 OsM C) 11 OsM D) 10 OsM 9) Two compartments are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water and urea. Compartment I contains 1 M NaCl. Compartment II contains 2 M urea. Which of the following is a correct statement of their relationship based on the initial conditions? A) Compartment I is isosmotic to Compartment II. B) Compartment I is hyposmotic to Compartment II. C) Compartment I is hypertonic to Compartment II. D) both A and C 10) pH is a measure of A) [H ]. B) [OH ]. C) ratio of [H ] to [OH ]. D) ratio of [OH ] to [H ]. 11) Which of the following statements is true for a strong base? A) It has a low pK. B) It has a high pK. C) It easily donates [H ]. D) It dissociates slowly. 2 BIOB34 – May 2013 (AJE, University of Toronto, UTSC) 12) Some of the most common buffers in animal cells are effective because A) they have a pK value that is close to the normal pH of the cell. B) they can bind with H in a chemical reaction, forming a new product that can be eliminated from the body. C) they have very low pK values. D) both A and B 13) Metabolic pathways that include synthetic reactions are called A) anabolic B) catabolic C) amphibolic D) both A and C 14) Free  energy  (ΔG) represents the amount of energy A) available for use from a reaction. B) required to start the reaction. C) that could potentially be released from a reaction. D) that goes to randomness. 15) K in the Michaelis-Menten equation represents m A) the maximum amount of substrate that can be catalyzed by the enzyme. B) the amount of substrate required for the initial velocity to be half of the maximal velocity. C) the amount of substrate required to start an enzymatic reaction. D) a set constant used for all enzymatic reactions. 16) How can environmental conditions such as salt concentration, temperature, and pH physically affect the enzyme itself? A) Ions can bind to the active sites of enzymes, preventing the binding of substrate. B) Changes in temperature change the rate at which molecules interact with the enzyme. C) All these factors can disrupt the weak bonds that hold the enzyme in its active conformation. D) These factors affect only the substrate. 17) Which of the following types of regulation involves binding to the active site? A) competitive inhibition B) allosteric regulation C) covalent modification D) both B and C 3 BIOB34 – May 2013 (AJE, University of Toronto, UTSC) 18) Why is ATP an important molecule? A) It links major pathways that release energy with those that require energy. B) It is an energy source that is found in high concentrations in cells. C) It is an energy source that is always available in large quantities. D) all of the above 19) The __________ structure of proteins involves interactions of amino acids that are found on different subunits. A) primary B) secondary C) tertiary D) quaternary 20) Which of the following carbohydrates is a monosaccharide? A) sucrose B) lactose C) glucose D) maltose 21) Which of the following polysaccharides performs a structural role? A) amylose B) glycogen C) chitin D) amylopectin 22) __________ is the metabolic pathway that synthesizes glycogen. A) Gluconeogenesis B) Glycogenesis C) Glycogenolysis D) Glycolysis 23) Glycolysis is an important metabolic pathway for the production of ATP because A) it can proceed with or without oxygen. B) it can produce ATP quickly. C) it can be used to metabolize fats and carbohydrates equally well. D) both A and B 24) All of the following are lipids, EXCEPT A) steroids. B) glycogen. C) triglycerides. D) phospholipids. 4 BIOB34 – May 2013 (AJE, University of Toronto, UTSC) 25) Glycerol molecules connected to three fatty acids are termed A) monoacylglycerides. B) diacylglycerides. C) triglycerides. D) cholesterol. 26) Cells within the adipose tissue that store lipids are called A) adipocytes. B) fat bodies. C) hepatopancreas. D) blubber. 27) Lipids used as a major component of biological membranes include A) phospholipases. B) sphingolipids. C) free fatty acids. D) both A and B 28) __________ enters the TCA cycle and forms NADH and FADH , which2can then be used for ATP production. A) Acetyl CoA B) Glucose C) Pyruvate D) A fatty acid chain 29) Cells can regulate the rate of the TCA cycle using all the following ways, EXCEPT A) controlling the concentration of the substrate. B) controlling the concentration of the required enzyme. C) controlling the amount of energy the cell must expend for survival. D) controlling the catalytic activity of the required enzymes. 30) Electrons can enter the electron transport system via many paths. The first point of commonality in the ETS for all these paths is A) complex I. B) complex II. C) cytochrome c. D) ubiquinone. 31) Production of ATP by the mitochondrial ATP synthase is increased by A) high levels of ATP. B) high levels of ADP. C) low levels of physical activity. D) low proton motive force. 5 BIOB34 – May 2013 (AJE, University of Toronto, UTSC) 32) Which of the following is a benefit of using phosphocreatine to store energy (as compared to ATP)? A) Phosphocreatine can be used by almost any process requiring an input of energy. B) Phosphocreatine can diffuse more easily to areas needing energy. C) Phosphocreatine allows muscles to stop using ATP, conserving it for other uses. D) Phosphocreatine is produced during periods of high muscle activity. 33) What is the advantage of storing energy as glycogen rather than as lipids? A) It contains more energy per unit mass. B) It does not prevent physical functions of a cell. C) It can be mobilized very rapidly. D) both A and B 34) Using oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production to measure the metabolic rate of an organism is called A) direct calorimetry. B) indirect calorimetry. C) doubly labeled water. D) gaseous exchange. 35) High concentrations of __________ indicate that a cell has plenty of energy. A) ADP B) AMP C) NAD + D) Acetyl CoA 36) When an ion crosses the membrane and binds to a protein to accomplish this feat, it is using A) passive diffusion. B) facilitated diffusion. C) active transport. D) either B or C 37) Ion channels that open or close based on changes in the mem
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