Feeding and digestion 2.docx

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Biological Sciences
Daniellenull Brown

Slide 2: Feeding is the process of obtaining nutriends and can be modulated by the needs of the individual. This is a study with beetles. They fed them one of two diets for one week either a lipid rich or a protein rich diet. After a week they let them choose if they wanted to lipid rich or protein rich food. The beetles that were eating a lipid rich food started loading up on protein rich food and vice versa. They need to get the other nutrients that they were deprived of and so the nutriend needs are modulated by the needs. The beetles were fed either a lipid –rich or a protein –rich food. When you give them a choice later, they choose the other category because they have been deprived of it and they need it. The Slide 3: This is a tape worm, they are endoparasites and live in the gut by sticking on to your gut. They just absorb nutrients through their body. The head end called the scolex has sucking discs, so they can bite on to the intestinal wall and allow the tube to float around absorbing food Body is made up of repeated segments. - Each segment is called a proglottids, they have no gut and so they just absorb everything through the walls and all this stuff in the segments are their gonads (for reproduction) - They passively absorb their nutrients - Tapeworms are primarily gutless, they never had a gut through their ancestors Slide 4: Sac = externa for incubation of eggs....infestation prevents crab from molting and so prevent diversion of energy away from parasite as well as leads to castration, crab cares for eggs as if their own - The white barnacles on the left are just regular parnacles and they have the largest penis size per body size - The one on the right is a crab with an egg sac, full of parasatic barnacles - The parasatic barnacle takes over the crab and stop the crab from molting and make an egg sac and force them to look after the parasitic barnacle’s eggs - The barnacles on the right are the parasitic ones, and they are the larval stage - They basically have a mass of undifferentiated mass and approach a host and inject that mass of cells into it - The cells are actually the parasitic barnacles, spread across the host and take in the nutrients. They have no gut, they just absorb it passively through the body walls - The barnacle on the left (the 2 pictures) have a gut however - The parasatic barnacles are secondary gutless, they had a gut and through evolutionary times they lost it because they did not need it anymore. - The egg sac is full of parasatic barnacles, they Infect the crab and forces them to look after their off springs - Barnacles at the larval stage are free swimming organisms - The parasitic barnacles have a mass of undiffreniate cells which is injected into the crab and is the barnacle that takes over the crab body - They absorb nutrients through the body surface - The parasitic barnacles are secondary gutless, means they lost their gut through evolution Slide 5: Sponges They are filter feeders, they pass the water through their body and filter what they want to eat Slide 6: Filter/Suspension Feeding The osculum is where the water is flowing out The water is coming through porocytes in to the central cavity spongocoel The choenocytes (collared cell) filter out all the foods they want - It has a single flagallum is constantly beating and is what causes the water to flow through the collar and out, there is a mesh like nature in the collar - The collar is lined with mucous which traps the food particles - This seperates food from the water - The food particles are engulfed by phagocytosis, which travel through to the amoebocyte which carries out the digestion of the food Slide 7: They are chordates and invertebrate They have large openings and a small opennings, The water comes through the big one and out through the small ones Slide 8: The upper opening is called the buccal siphon(water in) And the small one is called the atrial siphon(water out) They have a gut (the blue structure) which is actually the pharynx with many slits. The food gets separated from the water in the pharynx, which is coated with a mucous and is produced at the endostyle. The pharynx is ciliated, and the cilia pushes the mucous from the endostyle to the gutter, moving from the endostyle to the gutter coating all the splits The water flows through the slits and out through the atrial siphon The food gets caught in the mucous in the pharynx The gutter rolls up the mucous, and that mucous is full of all the food that is trapped and gets pushed into the gut where all the digestion occurs. Slide 9: Baleen whales (non-tooth whales) They have pleats at the bottom of the animal’s body surface, they are huge. These pleats allows for large amount of expansion of the oral cavity allowing for more water to be taken in during a single gulp They have baleen plates instead of teeeth, and help them separate the water from the food. They are made up of keratine like our hair and what not. The are going to open their mouth as wide as possible, take in a large amount of water-> Close their mouth and use their tongue to compress their oral cavity-> the water is going to pass out though the baleen-> Whatever cant get passed through get stuck and they just scrape it up with their tongue and digest it in their stomach. Their jaws are very flexible. - The jaw is joined very loosely to their skull allows them for them to open it wide (loose articulation), they joint is very elastic and allows - The other set of whales have teeth to seize water animals they can feed on Slide 10: Fluid Feeding: They pharynx is the major organ used for their feeding. They use it to penetrate into the body wall of the prey and suck out all the body fluids. Many of these animals will pump out enzymes that will break the tissues up to allow for a better fluid suction. Slide 11: Jawless fish They latch on the p
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