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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Jason Brown

SLIDE 2There are two distinct sections The outer layer is the cortex The change in the tissue you see is the medulla in the inner sideThe medulla leads to another structure called the renal pelvis where the urine produced by the kidney initially collectsRenal pelvis continues on to form ureter which takes the urine towards the bladderThe kidney has a blood supply that comes through the renal artery and the renal vein carries the blood away from the kidneyThe renal artery is one of the major branches coming off the aorta The blood coming to the kidneys needs high pressure to allow filtrationSLIDE 3Not all vertebrates have kidneys that look just like mammalsIn the pig kidney you can see the similarity in structure between itself and the human kidney in the previous slideIf you look at other vertebrates like the snake and the fish its different They dont have the compact kidney bean shape found in mammals their kidneys tend to be longer diffused organsIn the fish you can see long diffuse kidneys and in the snake it starts to be a little more compact and as it gets closer to mammalian kidneys it becomes more compact This occurs in other types of organs as well because they become more compact as you move up from fish to reptiles and to mammalsIn the fish or snake kidney theres no distinction between the cortex and medulla Theres no medulla in the kidneys of nonmammalian vertebrates so its unique to mammals You might see a little bit of it in birds but generally reptiles amphibians and fish have only a cortexSLIDE 4A kidney is comprised of millions of nephrons the nephrons together make a kidneyThere are two big parts to a nephron The red is the blood supply and the blue is the tubular components of the nephronBlood supply component circulatory component shown in redoSo you have a renal artery bringing blood to kidney it branches off into whats called afferent arteriole which take blood away from the renal artery and bring it to the ball of capillaries called glomerulus This is the site within the nephron where blood is filteredoThe vertebrate kidneys operate by filtrationreabsorption mechanism meaning the first thing in the formation of urine is that theres filtration which occurs at the glomerulus where fluid and solutes present in the blood plasma are forced under high pressure to come out of the capillaries and enter the little space around themoThe capillaries in the glomerulus come together to form the efferent arteriole which supplies the kidney with bloodoThe remaining blood supply is divided into 2 regions the peritubular capillaries and the vasa rectaoPeritubular capillaries are in the cortex and offer blood to the tubular components of the kidney in the cortexoThe vasa recta is the blood supply that comes down into deep parts of the kidneys and makes a U shaped turn and the blood flows back towards the cortex and comes back to the renal vein right near the cortexmedullary junctionoIn short blood comes through the artery through the afferent arteriole into glomerulus where filtration takes place into efferent arteriole through peritubular capillaries and vasa recta and ultimately out through the renal veinTubular component shown in blueoThe area that surrounds the glomerulus is called the Bowmans capsule The little space you see here is where the first urine is formed by the filtration of glomerulus which accumulates in this capsule and then passes through other tubular componentoIt first passes proximal convoluted tubule close to glomerulus and continues through and comes to the Loop of Henle the long structure that descends way down the medulla of the kidney and makes a turn and heads towards the cortex and eventually forms the distal convoluted tubule and then the urine is dumped into the collecting ductoThe proximal and distal convoluted tubule make up the cortex and the Loops of Henle makes up the medulla When we talk about non mammalian vertebrates having no medulla its because they lack the loop of HenleoOn the bottom left you see the nephron of a reptile theres no Loop of Henle This applies to reptiles amphibians fish and to some extent birds as wellSLIDE 5
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