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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 on Neruons and Communication

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Biological Sciences

BIOB30Fall2011 Chapter 8 Neurons Cellular and Network Properties and Chapter 6 Communication Integration and HomeostasisLecture 5 Neuron Signaling Involves 3 Signaling Mechanismsneurotransmission conversion of action potential into a chemical signal which is released from the presynaptic axon terminal neurotransmitter is releasedthis causes a response in the dendritescell body of the target neuron at the postsynaptic junction3 signaling mechanisms graded potential at dendrites or cell body which turns into an action potential at the trigger zone which results in chemical neurotransmission at the axon terminal at the presynaptic junctionComponents of a Synapseneurons have between 10 000 to over 150 000 synapses on their dendrites and cell bodieseach synapse has 2 partsthe axon terminal of the presynaptic cell and the membrane of the post synaptic cellelectrical synapses pass an electrical signal or current directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to another through gap junctions protein channels that create cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cellsinformation can flow in both directions through most gap junctions but in a rectifying synapse they can only flow in one directionelectrical synapses occur mainly in the CNSthey are also found in glial cells in cardiac smooth muscle and in non excitable cells that use electrical signals such as the pancreatic beta cellsprimary advantage of electrical synapses is that they conduct signals very fast and gap junctions can also allow for chemical signal molecules to diffuse between adjacent cellschemical synapses use neurotransmitters to carry information from cell to cell at chemical synapses the e
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