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Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

Lecture 1: Ecology Extinctions ▯ - Current extiction rate is up to one thousand times higher than the fossil record ▯ - Projected future extinction rate is more than ten times higher than current rate ▯ - The rate of extiction is higher and its predicted that it will increase ▯ - We are losing species that we havenʼt even discovered ▯ - An example of extiction was due to an astroid hitting the earth and destroying the earth, ▯ this time its different because humans are causing the extiction of species ▯ - Extictions: historial (723) [caribbean monk seal, javan tiger, dodo, tasmanian wolf], past 10 ▯ years (7) [west african black rhino, baiji white dolphin, golden toad, ▯spixʼs macaw] we are in ▯ risk in the next 20 years of losing 50% of amphibians ▯ - One reason for extinction is because change the landscape of the world. Species lose ▯ their habitats. These changes only benefit humans to a certain extent. However these ▯ actions have long term consequences What is Biodiversity? ▯ - Countries came together to say that we have a biodiversity crisis ▯ - 1992 United Nations Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro defined biodiversity as “the ▯ variability among living organisms from all sources, including: diversity within species, ▯ between species and of ecosystems” ▯ - Biodiversity is the variation of life, includes variations in genes, forms, and functions Why conserve biodiversity? ▯ - Organisms teach us a lot ▯ - We get most of our medicine from organism ▯ - They operate in ways that can help us solve many problems ▯ - Organisms can provide pollination service, an utility in nature ▯ - They control pests ▯ - Control water system and/or make it clean ▯ - Therefore we need biodiversity to help maintain a healthy environment ▯ - Biodiversity tell us where we came from, tell us about our history ▯ - Nature helps us understand ourselves, if we protect it we can learn more about ourselves What is Ecology? ▯ - Ecology is not conservation or preservation/protecting species, its about understanding ▯ - It is the study of the interaction between organism and their environment ▯ - Ecology is the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their ▯ environment ▯ - It is a branch of biology. Ecology is not the same thing as environmental science ▯ - Environmental science incorporates concepts from the natural sciences (including ▯ ecology) and the social sciences, and focuses on solutions to envir
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