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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

Lecture 5: Itʼs all bout energy: Secondary Production Sources of Energy ▯ - Hetetroph species consume resources in different ways ▯ - Glycolysis: just like photosynthesis and there is a specific process/pathway ▯ ▯ - This is a set pathway in which organim turn what they consume into energy ▯ ▯ - Here it takes 2 input of energy, for ATP ▯ ▯ - Consume molecules to get energy back Introduction ▯ - Over half the species on Earth obtain energy by feesing on other organisms, in a variery of types of ▯ interactions ▯ - All are exploitation: a relationship in which one organism benefits by feeding on, and thus directly harming, ▯ another. One way relationship: one benefits while one suffers Secondary Production ▯ - Secondary production is generated through the consumption of organic matter by heterotrophs. Producing ▯ biomass from biomass of other orgnaism ▯ - Secondary Production: energy derived from consumption of organic compounds that were produced by other ▯ organisms ▯ - Some organic matter consumed by heterotrophs is incorporated into biomass, some is used in respiration, ▯ some is egested in urine and feces ▯ - Net Secondary Production = ingestion - respiration - egestion ▯ * Read about isotopic composition of organisms: P.426, P.424-425 ▯ - Herbivore: eats the tissue or internal fluids of living plants or algae ▯ - Predator: kills and eats other organisms, referred to as prey ▯ - Parasite: lives in or on another organism (its host), feeding on parts of it. Usually they donʼt kill the host ▯ - Some parasite (pathogens) cause disease ▯ - Heterotrophs are classified according to the type of food they eat ▯ ▯ - Herbivores: consume plants and algae ▯ ▯ - Carnivores: consume other live animals ▯ ▯ - Detrivores: consume dead organic matter (detritus) ▯ ▯ - Omnivores: consume bother plants and animals ▯ - We can have things that are flexible on what they eat and where they get their energy eg. omnivores ▯ - Two main differences between herbivores and predators: ▯ ▯ - Usually herbivores only eat one types of plant. They will usually go around looking for that specific ▯ ▯ plant or part of a plant. They never kill the thing they are eating. They eat parts of the plant and it ▯ ▯ grows back ▯ ▯ - While carnivores will eat anything usually. They will kill them and this affects the amount of species ▯ ▯ available ▯ ▯ - Generalist: eat many species of plants compared to only one Predation and Herbivory ▯ - Herbivores can be grouped based on what part of a plant they feed on ▯ - Large herbivores may eat all aboveground parts, but most specialize on particular plant ▯parts, wonʼt eat the ▯ roots ▯ - Leaves are the most common part eaten. They are often the most nutritious part of the plant▯ ▯ - There are reasons why organisms eat only certain parts of the plants. As organisms we ▯want to get the ▯ nitrogen. We consume the parts of the plant with a lot of nitrogen Introduction ▯ - Not all organisms fit neatly into these categories. For example, some predators such as ▯wolves also eat ▯ berries, nuts, and leaves ▯ - Parasitoids are insects that lay an egg on or in another insect host. After hatching, larva ▯remain in the host, ▯ which they eat and usually kill. Are they unusual parasites or unusual predators? An example of parasitoids is ▯ wasps ▯ - Provisioning hunting wasps sting caterpillars to paralyze them. It provisions a underground cell with ▯ paralyzed caterpillars, then lays an egg in the chamber, and the wasp larvae eat the prey alive. Example of ▯ Charles Darwin idea of evolution and survival of the fit Adaptations ▯ - Adaptations to avoid being eaten alive are everywhere ▯ - Organisms develop defensive abilities to survive ▯ - Plants have an array of structural defenses. Some plants have spikes, thorns for example ▯ - Example: Compensatory Growth: if this certain plant is clipped early, it has more offsprings. if not, it gets ▯ taller, higher chance of surviving ▯ - Secondary Compounds are chemicals that reduce herbivory. Some are toxic to herbivores (spikes), others ▯ attract predators or parasitoids that will attack herbivores ▯ - Plants that produce more volatiles (chemical) have better protection ▯ - Physical Defenses include large size (elephants), rapid or agile movement (gazelles), and body armour ▯ (snails, anteater) ▯ - Chemical Defenses, species contain toxins. They are often brightly coloured, as a warning: aposematic ▯ colouration. Predators learn not to eat them ▯ - Other prey species use mimicry as a defense, camouflage
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