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BIOB50 Chapter 2-3 Notes .docx

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Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

Ecology BIOB50 Chapter 2-3 Organisms and their environment -physical environment decides where organisms can live and what resources are available to them e.g. won’t find Nemo in desert wrong environment Global diversity -some places have more amphibians than others, same as plants climate- long-term description of weather, based on averages -determines the geographic distribution of organisms e.g. blue jays, climate controlling their numbers widespread mortality -drought species dies, large scale mortality latitudinal differences in solar radiation -same energy at the beginning -sun hits equator directly straight, increases energy -sun hitting polesenergy disperse over larger area (same amount of energy) as hitting equator so less energy, not as hot -air that’s heated rises, cools and produces lots of rainfall -equatorwarm and wet -high pressure areas are dry 3 cells- tropical, temperate, polar zones -direct angle of solar radiation- hot -indirect angle of solar radiation- cooler Annual Seasonal Temperature Variation -many rays different ranges of temperatures Regional climate -snowfall affected by mountains and water bodies Rain-Shadow Effect -wet and dry side on the mountain -one side green and wet, other side is dry Regional Climatic Influences -evapotranspiration- sum of water loss through transpiration by plants and evaporation of soil Effects of Deforestation -system loses heat in albedo reflected radiation from surface e.g. snow reflecting solar radiation -sensible heat loss= direct heat loss e.g. heating plants, heat transfers back into air -latent heat loss- change in state, requires energy e,g, water to gas biosphere- zone of life on Earth, between lithosphere and troposphere biomes- major biological regions, can be far apart but similar to each other terrestrial biomes- characterized by the dominant growth forms of vegetation Biomes- Precipitation vs Temperature Graphs **on midterm/exam Tropical rainforest -precipitation usually exceed 200m -warm, seasonally invariant temperatures Tropical rainforest & savannas -rainfall seasonal, wet and dry season shifts -frequency of fire increases dry season -temperature is quite constant Hot Deserts -inhibit precipitation, limit supply of water -high temperature, sparse vegetation and animal populatio
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