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BIOB50Winter2012 Lecture 21.docx - includes images and relevant textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

BIOB50Winter2012 Lecture 21 Metapopulations and Metacommunities End of Chapter 10 and End of Chapter 12 Metapopulations o Many species have a metapopulation structure in which sets of spatially isolated populations are linked by dispersalo for many species areas of suitable habitat exist as a series of favourable sites that are spatially isolated from one anothero metaabout itself in Greekin science it is translated as something for something example metaanalyses an analisis of analysesHuffaker and Mites and The Orange Ecosystemo Figure 1221 In a Simple Environment Predators Drive Prey to Extinction oo Part A Huffaker constructed a simple lab environment to test for conditions under which predators and prey would coexist and produce population cycles He placed oranges in a few positions in an experimental tray to provide food for the herbivours six spotted mite the remainder of the positions contained inedible rubber ballso Part B when a predatory mite was introduced into the simple environment it drove the prey to extinction causing its own population to go extinct as wellthe prey and predators dispersed from orange to orange in the trey when meeting the predator ate all the mites and so the mites went extinct eventually causing the predator to become extincto Figure 1222 PredatorPrey Cycles inComplex EnvironmentHuffaker modified the simple lab environment to create a more complex one that aided the dispersal of the prey species but hindered the dispersal of the predator species Under these conditions predator and prey populations coexisted and their abundances cycled over timeIn late July first panel the densities of both prey and predator were high About a month rdlater the densities of both had fallen second panel and then they started to rise again in October 3 panel 1
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