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BIOB50Winter2012 Lecture 22.docx - includes images and relevant textbook notes!

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

BIOB50Winter2012 Lecture 22 Lottery Competition and Neutral Theory Chapter 18 o The competitive exclusion principletwo species that use a limiting resource in the same way cannot coexisto Joseph Grinnell first used the term niche in 1917 as no two species of birds or mammals will be found to occupy precisely the same nicheo Figure 184 Community membership A series of Filtersspecies end up in a local community by passing through a series of filters that determine community membership Species are lost at each filter so local communities contain only a fraction of species in the regional pool In practice all filter work at the same time rather than in a series as the figure suggests oCommunity Membership o Species diversity differs among communities due to variation in regional species pools abiotic conditions and species interactionso There are three schools of thought about what controls community diversity o 1 Equilibrium Theory ecological and evolutionary compromises lead to resource partitioningo 2 Nonequilibrium Theory fluctuating conditions keep dominant species from monopolizing resourceso 3 Neutral Theory species do not differ and diversity patterns are product of dispersa speciation and demographic stochasticity Equilibrium TheoriesResource Partitioning1
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