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Lecture 14

BIOB51 Lecture 14 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Oct 25, 2012 BIOB51 Lecture 14 Notes  Genetic drift is caused by random processes, not related to phenotype  Has different individuals having different reproductive success  Random effect is stronger in a small population  Not everyone is reproducing at a given period of time, and the subset of individuals that reproduce doesn’t have to do with their phenotype  If you chose a large sample of individuals, you are more likely to get the same allele frequencies as the previous generation  In genetic drift allele frequency of zygotes is different from population  Differential reproductive success is based purely on chance  The average allele frequency is the same, but there is variation around the average  Strongest effects are in small populations where you will get sampling error  Eventually allele frequencies hit 1 or are lost  As allele frequency increases, heterozygosity decreases  Even in large samples, you will get changes in allele frequencies; at a much slower, and much less drastic rate  If drift is the only mechanism at work, then there will be changes in allele frequencies just due to chance  Can result in the loss of allele in populations, whether or not the allele helps the organism survive better  Causes decrease in genetic variation  Change due to drift is most likely when selection is not operating
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