Chapter 10 Notes Studying Adaptation (Lectures 6 and 7 - Fall2011)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

BIOB51Fall2011 Chapter 10 Studying Adaptation Evolutionary Analysis of Form and Function Lecture 6 and Lecture 7Evolution Pattern and Process o Microevolution process changes in gene frequencies and trait distribution within populations and specieso This often involves the study of changesdifferences within populations over time ex the effect on finches of droughtchanges and differences among populations across space exmosquito fish gonopodia o The time scale is relatively short periods meaning 1 or few generationso Macroevolution changes that distinguish higher taxonomic groups o Involves the study of large scale phenotypic changes that differentiate in animal taxa ex the development of wings phylogenetic patterns ex evolutionary history o The time scale is long periods meaning a large number of generationso The method of analysis depends on the time scale of interest o For microevolution process the scientific method is used to do planned experiments natural experiments and observational studiesScientific Method o 1Observation WHY o 2Hypothesis educated guesspossible explanation o 3Prediction if hypothesis is true theno 4Test gather data compare treatment groupso Experimentindependent variable X is altered look for effect of this on dependent variable Y by comparing different treatment groupso Observation careful measurement of X as function of natural variation Y o Strongest testsopposing predictions of alternative hypothesesone alternative is always the null hypothesis meaning that X has no effect on Y in the treatment groups o 5 Draw Conclusion statistical test of the data collected depends on the magnitude of the difference in data and the sample sizeresult is a P value which dictates the probability that the observed result is due to chanceo If P is smaller or equal to 005 then the data collected is not just due to chanceo Microevolutionary questionseffects on fitness within population how does a trait affect lifetime reproductive successexample the effect of shell thickness thin vs Thick on mortality from crab predation in periwinkleso There are 2 types of experiments planned and natural o Planned experiment the independent variable X is manipulated by researcher ex fruit fly dance and marking experiment o Natural Experiment independent variable X is altered naturally ex soapberry bugs in florida and their altered beak lengthhan Chinese vs Tibetans blood oxygen saturationGalapagos finchesGeospiza magnirostris large and Geospiza fortis medium o The alternative hypotheses always strengthen the tests and the null hypothesis must always be considered o Confounding factors must be controlled control treatments randomization standardized test conditions oRock Pigeonso Rock pigeons with tiny hooks on their beaks were able to kill the feathereating lice and maintain superior featherstherefore better than the featherless birds at keeping warm evading predators and attracting males o Overall the rock pigeons with hooks on their beaks had more offspring
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