Mutations, Population Genetics and Hardy Weinberg Lectures

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Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

BIOB51Fall2011 Mutations Population Genetics and Hardy WeinbergLectureMutation and Evolutionary Changeo Mutation provides heritable variation which is essential to evolutionbut does mutation alone cause significant change in allele frequencies ie evolution o Although mutation creates new alleles and is essential for evolution to occur it usually does not significantly change allele frequencies because it is rare and random o Randommutation is equally likely at every locus o Raremutation rate per locus is low00007 is among the highest reported o Therefore the likelihood that many individuals produce gametes with the same mutation in any one generation is very LOW What are the Mechanisms that Produce Evolutionary Change in Populations o Individuals do NOT evolve populations do o Is there a way to monitor alleles in populations to predict whether evolution might occurinterbreeding group of organisms and their offspringPopulation Geneticso Population genetics changes in the relative abundance of traits in a population can be tied to changes in the relative abundance of the alleles that influence themo Theory that allows us to track the fate of alleles and genotypes across generationsused as a tool for studying evolutiono It gives insight about what mechanisms lead to evolution and what is the expected fate of the new allelestraits formedo Population genetics gives us insight into human diseaseswhy are diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anemia still maintained in populationsand Will genes that confer resistance to HIV increase in frequency in human populations o Population genetics also gives us insigh
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