HIV Case Study Lecture

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

1BIOB51Fall2011 HIV Case Study Lectureo HIVhuman immunodeficiency viruso AIDSacquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by HIVo AIDS accounts for 49 of deaths every year worldwide which is greater than wars accidents homicides malaria etcBiology of HIV o HIV virion is a retrovirushas RNA instead of DNA o Turns RNA into DNA o HIV virion binds to the host cell membraneo RNA reverse transcriptase and integrase enter the hosto Reverse transcription occursRNA is turned into viral DNA in the host cell o Integrase splices the DNA made into the host genomeo Host RNA transcribes viral DNA into mRNA and makes new virions which are then assembled in the cell o The new virions infect other cells in the same hostselection inside the body of each host rapid replication favouredo The new virions are passed to new hosts via body fluidsselection across the population of hosts maximum spread across hosts is favoured How does HIV make you sick o HIV infects cells with CD4 surface proteins ohelper T cells immune system function recognizes foreign proteins and helps activate killer T cells and triggers antibody formationo HIV kills helper T cells directly and the hosts body destroys infected helper Tcells o Eventually results in collapse of immune system HIV turns to AIDS in about 8 years after infection and death occurs within 2 years of AIDS infecti
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