Quantitative Genetic and Heritability Lectures

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Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

BIOB51Fall2011 Quantitative Genetics and Heritability LecturePopulation Genetics o Qualitative traitscharacteristics for which phenotypes fail into discrete categoriescontrolled by 1 or 2 loci o Example right handed or left handed fish sickle cell trait or normal red blood cells o Population genetics focus on genotypesallele frequencies in populationsdoes frequency of allele change over time o Recall Assumption assumes phenotypes fall into discrete categories determined strictly by genotypes there is no environmental effect on phenotypes o But the internal and external environment is important for the development of most traits this may mean that phenotypes of individuals may vary even if they have identical genotypeso Example Yarrow Achilleaplants with exactly the same genotype are reared in different environmentsdramatic differences in height due to environmental differences o Take plants with different genotypes and rear in similar environmentsplant phenotype varies with genotypeo Plant form varies with genotype and elevation environment high elevationintermediate sized plants o Medium elevationlow heightsize of plants o Low elevationhigh heightsize o Most phenotypes are affected by both genotypes and the environmentthis is particularly true for Quantitative Traitso Monozygotic twins are genetically identical but they often differ in phenotypic traits with a known genetic basisQuantitative Genetics o Quantitative trait a characteristic for which pheontypes show continuous variation among individuals example height o Traits are determined by the environment and many mend
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