Why are Females Choosy? Lectures

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

BIOB51Fall2011 Why are Females Choosy LectureHypothesis 1 Direct Benefitso Predictions o 1 females receive some resources from males o 2 resources increases female survival ability to produce and care for her young o 3 females prefer males that provide more or better resourcesfemales usually assess resource rather than male o Example of resources are food parental care breeding territory protection from predatorso Example Female hanging flies Bittacus apicalis1males present prey item to female during courtship like a nuptial gift and females eat it during copulationso males do provide resourceso 2females benefit directily from this because they use the nutrients to produce more eggs and females do not have to hunt for food so it increases their survival hunting is dangerous o 3females choose based on resourcechoose male with larger prey and larger preylonger copulation longer copulationmore sperm transferred sperm transfer plateus after 20 minutes Hypothesis 2 Indirect BenefitsGood genes o Predictions o 1 females choose males with the most elaborate trait ornament or display o 2 trait is an honest indicator of genetic quality heritable high naturally selected fitness example survivorship resistance to parasites etc o Honest indicator means that there is positive correlation between trait value and quality o Example Barn Swallowsmale have longer tails than femaleslong tails hinder flyingdo males have longer tails because of sexual selection via female choice for good genes o 1 females prefer males with most elaborate ornamentin an experiment the females mate first with the males with the longest t
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