BIOC12 Lecture 1.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Shelley A.Brunt

BIOC12 Lecture 1 May 8, 2013 st -1ndid-term: covers first 4 lectures, June 5, 5-7pm -2 mid-term: cover first 8 lectures, July 12, 7-9pm, SY110 Biochemistry (Slide 6) -chemistry of living things -How is it different from the chemical reactions in the lab? chemical reactions that usually take many years to complete can be completed shortly with the help of enzymes -role enzymes & proteins allow the cells to carry the chemical process -multiple disciplines, including biology, chemistry, cell & molecular, thermodynamic, organic chemistry, genetics Chemistry of Life: four key concepts (Slide 8) -biological chemical reactions are reversible using another enzyme to carry out the opposite reactions TATA Box (Slide 9) -TATA box binding probes in 3 different organisms, including 1) Sulfolobus acidicaldarius, 2) Arabidopsis thaliana, 3) Homo sapiens -location: upstream -function of the TATA box: drive the transcription of RNA polymerase -at the amino acid level, the 3 proteins from the diagram look similar in terms of conformation -despite the differences in the amino acid sequence in the 3 organisms, folding of the protein plays an important (larger) role in determining the function of the protein Periodic Table (Slide 10) -cobalt, potassium & magnesium are essential elements for co-factor Bonds (Slide 13) -covalent bond: forms the backbone of the structure -folding of the protein requires weaker interactions so they can be broken easily & reform -proteins need to change their structure -cell cannot function if covalent bond is required to be broken Laws of Thermodynamics -1 law: change form of energy, may generate heat (Slide 16) -2 law: order to disorder is favoured -however, the process of DNA to proteins are disorder to order, therefore heat is generated to ensure equilibrium (Slide 17) Double-Helix Formation of DNA and Entropy (Slide 18) -proteins keep the single stranded DNA in place -no ornate structure (loop) for DNA because it spends less time in cell (outside the nucleus) -otherwise, there will be more variety in DNA structure Proteins (Slide 25) -there are more than 20 amin- acids in the nature due to isos+ereomer -first amino acid has COO end & last amino acid has NH end, t3ey are the only charge remained, but they do not determine the charge of the protein -R group determines the polarity of the protein Lysozyme (Slide 28) -glycan layer, found in te
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