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Lecture 13

lecture 13

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Biological Sciences
Patrick Mc Gowan

Lecture 13 C14Cognitive Disordermoving from an analysis from normal behaviours to the study of the genetics behind difference in personality and sexual behaviour of some of the most studied cognitive disorders in behavioursIn humans mutation affecting the length of dopamine receptor 4 gene long gene increased interest in novel situations in personality tests Example from the text book describes this existing in dogs and different genes that have different levels in aggression trainability Main example golden retriever versus a Shiba hard to train low playfullness high aggression DRD4 allele in dogs is opposite that the one in human Short allele increased interest in novel situations This polymorphism was found using genotyping by one group quite a while ago Sometimes we dont understand what the polymorphism is doing In dogs the polymorphism is found but we dont know the functional differences and how they contribute to the phenotype all we know that these allelic variations are associated with different phenotypes Basic idea is that there are notable differences in the different strains in dogs in the dopamine receptors that confer different phenotypesGeneral intelligence quotient combination of many cognitive abilities put together Cognitive ability is something that can be measured directly Intelligence is a complex traitEach cognitive ability is controlled by many geneslike quantitative traitsThe wide range of genetic aberration is associated with intelligence deficitsMental retardation one of the most studiedThese are genetic variations that are causing pronounced intellectual deficits This is people with IQ of below 85 borderline metally retarded 70 is the official cutoff And lower than that the severity increasesThe 3 examples1 Mental Retardationsituation of low cognitive functionofficial cutoff is 70We can divide IQ scores in categories 5569can functional well on their own they have jobs they get marriesModerate a bit more severe they need help with things They live in assisted living facilitiesSevere people who need full time careProfound major problems developmentally that they can hardly function they have physical problems Affects general health not just the IQGenetic environmental Causessome genetic aberration is associated with about 28 of mental retardation Teratogen number of factors in the environment that cause MR They affect oxygenation in the brain Exposure of heavy metal can cause babies to be mentally retardedlead Exposure to radiationTrisomy Down syndrome having an extra chromosome
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