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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Patrick Mc Gowan

BIOC14 Lecture 16 Audio Lecture 17 y Treated animals pregnantwith pesticides and fungicides and saw a whole hosts of diseasestumorsbreast and skin prostate and kidney diseases and immune dysfunction o The next step was to go to the next generation and to the third generation to see if the diseases persisted 85 of all animals in the next generation had the disease o New phenomenaexposure to these environmental toxins did not just affect the individual but also individuals 23 generations down the line o Epigenetics has a major role in disease developmento The lives of our ancestor have a capacity to affect us directly o Epigenetics has the capacity to reach every parts of our lives and it links our past present and futureo There are many diseases commomalzeihmner diabetes which are very difficult to explain genetically maybe they are actually caused by epigenetics o Angelmann syndrome happy puppetsno speechdeletion of chromosome 15 o Much milder pradawillideletion of chromosome 15obsession with food Two completely different diseases being caused by the exactly same fault o From fatherprada willi and from the mother angelman o Genomic imprintinggenes have a memory of where they came fromo A simple chemical that dictated whether the gene is turned on or off Whether a gene is turned on or off is called epigenetics o Not only is the sequence important but there is an overlying epigenetics phenomena that allows the genes to turn on or off This explains how humans can be created with less than 30000 geneso IVF causes the diseases 34 times higher Having the embryo in the culture tissue causes some genes to turn on and off o Expectation as the altered genome passes to children any epigenetics syndromes will be removed The epigenetics switch turned off in the next generations as wello Maybe imprinting was used as a transgenerational evolutionary mechanism Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance y There are phenomena that were are interested in explaining within a generation in term of epigenetics y Heaelth outcomes and confordance in MZ versus DZ twinsfigure shows concordance ratesessentially the prevalence of different diseases in different age stages within the two MZ twins is different Autism is highly heritable 75 concordance in MZ twins But the concordance rates are not 100 Cleft palate cleft lip 10 Breast cancerlater onset for the disease late 40sconcordance rateless than 20 The hope with the HGP was that once we discover all the different variations that account for these disease it would be just amatter of sequencing the genome and finding the SNPs The problem is that it doesnt work out that way The human genome is the hard ware and epigenetics is the soft ware
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