BIOC14 : Lec 14 : Psychiatric Disorders with Cognitive Components

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Biological Sciences
Patrick Mc Gowan

BIOC14 Lec 14Psychiatric Disorders w Cognitive ComponentsLegend Popnpopulation Pplpeople Dysfxndysfunction vepositive fxnfunction btnbetween behbehavior cxnsconnections y Two highly heritable cognitive disorders schizophrenia and autism y Try to identify variance in genetic sequences that attribute to disorders that alter cognition and behavior oThe more common the variant is in the population the easier it is to detect a lot of common variants are predominantly detected by GWAS studies even at very moderate effect sizes ex very modest odds ratio o In terms of traits that affect behavior we know that there are few common variants that have big effects we tend to think of these things as being collections of small effects of many genes rather than large effects of a few genes o As we move down in terms of allele frequency in the popn below 5 if there is occurrence of a minor allele that occurs in less than 5 of the popn starts to get more difficult to identify traits that are associated w them bc of the ways that studies are runyou need huge sample size to get representations of enough individuals that have the alleles to identify them through GWAS o Although theres evidence from certain conditions that theres high heritability its not always the case that many genes and sometimes no genes have really been identified that have been found to positively contribute to the effectsreferred to as missing heritability idea that a lot of traits show high degrees of heritability in family and linkage studies but very few genes have been associated w them predominant theory as to why this is the case is because certain alleles that contribute to the disorders occur so infrequently in the popn that theyre just hard to detect even thru GWAS studies bc need to large subject s to find individuals that have those alleles o Idea is that these really rare variants have really small effects and that they contribute together to the complex traitdisorder but its very hard to pick them out sometimes bc they occur so infrequentlythis is the case for 2 complex disorders that well go over today schizophrenia and autismSCHIZOPHRENIAo Not just one thing o Thought of as a group of psychiatric disorders that present w similar clinical features but like any other complex disorder that affects behavior in humans its going to be a combination of symptoms o 2 ppl with schizophrenia may have very diff symptoms but share certain categories of dysfxn o Main 2 categories of dysfunctionPositive symptoms hallucinations hearing voices smelling things that arent there delusions disorganized behaviors rambling thoughts speech
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