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Lecture 9

BIOC16 Lecture 9.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Lecture 9 Final exam - April 15th 9-12 bv363 - compare and contrast questions- tell why they are similar and what makes them different not just define QTL mapping continued... Deficiency stocks - drosophila resource! - flies missing parts of their genome! - drawing these you see what parts are still there and then the dotted line is where the deficiency is So you know the region that is missing in all three that overlaps in the one that is causing long life. To verify this we use a method called Quantitative Complementation + is the wildtype Significant interaction from aniva Assess longevity When crossed with a deficiency of a specific trait Now down to 20-30 genes ! Next step is the candidate gene approach! ! 1 gene known for breaking down insulin! Obtain mutant stock Something about the L and the S alleles are different What is the difference in the allele of our candidate gene that leads to the different trait values we observe?! - we need to look at DNA sequence polymorphisms ( functional polymorphisms not rflps, rpds, etc.) DNA sequence is the ultimate view of standing genetic variation! - signatures of past evolution are contained in DNA sequences In the 1960's was formed the neutral theory ! The neutral theory presents a null model! ! Deviations from the Neutral theory shows deviations in selection, demographic events such as drift, bottleneck, and founders effect. Neutrality! - formed by Moto Kimura in 1960s! -it deals with the relative importance of natural selection and drift on molecular evolution! - the majority of molecular evolution (DNA sequencing) is driven by neutral drift. ! Good to compare regions that are under selection! - there is a constancy of molecular evolution called the molecular clock ! -functionally less constrained accumulate more mutation and evolve at a higher rate Continuation from last page of other notebook.... Non synonymous DNA Sequence Evolution! Synonymous dN/ds Ratio (nonsyn/ syn)! - provides information about the form of sequence evolution in a gene! - if dn/ds is less t
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