Final exam - April 15th 9-12 bv363
- compare and contrast questions- tell why they are similar and what makes them
different not just deﬁne
QTL mapping continued...
Deﬁciency stocks - drosophila resource!
- ﬂies missing parts of their genome!
- drawing these you see what parts are still
there and then the dotted line is where the
So you know the region that is
missing in all three that overlaps
in the one that is causing long
To verify this we use a method called Quantitative Complementation
+ is the wildtype
When crossed with a deﬁciency of a speciﬁc
trait Now down to 20-30 genes !
Next step is the candidate gene approach!
1 gene known for breaking down insulin!
Obtain mutant stock
Something about the L and the S alleles are different
What is the difference in the allele of our candidate gene that leads to the different trait
values we observe?!
- we need to look at DNA sequence polymorphisms ( functional polymorphisms not rﬂps,
DNA sequence is the ultimate view of standing genetic variation!
- signatures of past evolution are contained in DNA sequences
In the 1960's was formed the neutral theory !
The neutral theory presents a null model!
Deviations from the Neutral theory shows deviations in selection, demographic events such
as drift, bottleneck, and founders effect.
- formed by Moto Kimura in 1960s!
-it deals with the relative importance of natural selection and drift on molecular evolution!
- the majority of molecular evolution (DNA sequencing) is driven by neutral drift. !
Good to compare regions that are under selection!
- there is a constancy of molecular evolution called the molecular clock !
-functionally less constrained accumulate more mutation and evolve at a higher rate Continuation from last page of other notebook.... Non synonymous
DNA Sequence Evolution!
dN/ds Ratio (nonsyn/ syn)!
- provides information about the form of sequence evolution in a gene!
- if dn/ds is less t