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Lecture 6

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Biological Sciences
Ian Brown

Lecture 6Tissue Interactions in DevelopmentMorphogenesis slide 2 Differentiation and growth of tissues and organs during developmentAfter gastrulation and formation of the three germ layers ecto meso and endoderm internal organs begin to be formedIn this lecture we will see how tissue interactions are crucial for the formation of internal organs such as the digestive tract the pancreas and the lungsOrganogenesis lecture 3 Period during development when the internal organs are being formedAn organ is composed of a group of tissues that work in a coordinated manner to perform a specific function Most organogenesis thhas begun by 5 wk gestation in humans In the embryo internal organs are forming such as the liver pancreas and the gastrointestinal GI tract esophagus stomach intestineTwo important tissues during organogenesis slide 4The two tissue layers are epithelium and mesenchymeThe epithelium ICEinternal epithelium cells forms the internal organs and are cuboidal in shapeLecture 6Tissue Interactions in DevelopmentJunction complexes hold the cells togetherThe top of the epithelial cell is known as the apical end while the end closest to the basement membrane is known as the basal endThe apical end can change in shapesome form cilia or villiEpithelial cells differentiateThe black line represents the basement membrane which contains laminin proteins Basement membrane a specialized sheetlike structure that separates epithelial cells from the surrounding connective tissue Consists of extracellular matrix proteins held together by collagen Epithelial cells slide 5 Arranged in a layer or sheet of cellsCells exhibit polarity surface specializations microvilli for absorption cilia for movementEpithelial cells sit on basement membraneThese cells are connected together by junctional complexes and Cell Adhesion Molecules CAMs During developmentEpithelial cells line ducts of developing organsGive rise to differentiated specialized cells of internal organIn the adult Epithelial cells line internal organs ducts glands blood vesselsAlso line outside of organsForms outer layer of skinThe long thin cells on the left show the differentiated cells Mesenchymal Cells Slide 6 Mesenchymal cells are irregular in shape separated from each other and embedded in an extracellular matrix ECMThese cells secret inducing factors that trigger cells in adjacent epithelial layers to differentiate into specific cell types in the formation of internal organs such as the lung and pancreas
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