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BIOC19H3 (88)
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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ian Brown

BIOC19H3FLECTURE 3Development of Red Blood CellsWe must break the process down to learn it in detailWe will use model systemsSlide 2 Why is RBC Development a Good ModelThe study of red blood cells RBC why is the development of red blood cells a good model system to study differentiationWhy are red blood cells selected as a modelIt is a good example of cell differentiationRed blood cells start with a stem cell undifferentiated at this stage the cell has no detectible levels of hemoglobinHowever this changes as the cell matures into an adult blood cell95 of the protein in the adult cell is hemoglobin and it came from a blood cell that had no hemoglobin in it at allHemoglobin is needed for functioning of the adult cell The process follows a sequence and we can follow these steps under a microscopeWe can carry out molecular analysis because we can separate these stages and analyze what the changes are There are marker proteins globin genes which is a marker gene which can identify stages of developmentThere is also a factor that induces red blood cell differentiation if we can identify the inducer we can study the sequence this way in transgenic animals where the developmental sequence has been modified which is a useful tool Each stage of differentiation is present in abundanceThe development of red blood cells is a process that is ongoing all thru lifeRed blood cells have a limited life span and must be replacedWe can isolate these cells from an adult rat or mouse Red blood cells are unlike brain cells that develop early on there is not much differentiation Red blood cells have differentiation all through their life as they need to be replacedErythropoiesis is the process of red cell developmentSlide 3 What is function of the Red Blood CellsThe red blood cell plays an essential role in respirationAll animals breathe in oxygen into the lungs which is required by all tissues How does oxygen get to all tissuesThe red blood cell picks up the oxygen and the blood steam takes the oxygen throughout the body to all the tissuesThis is respiration and the distribution of oxygenThe red blood cells also get rid of carbon dioxide which is another phase of respirationHow do they transport oxygenSlide 4 HemoglobinThey need hemoglobin a specialized protein this builds up during differentiationmolecule shown on overheadEach molecule consists of four 4 polypeptide chains two 2 alpha and two 2 beta chains in the adult hemoglobin Globin comes from the globin polypeptide which contains a globular structure It also has a heme group which is iron containing porphyrin ringThe iron can be fe or fe is associated with polypeptidesEach molecule of hemoglobin can hold four 4 231
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