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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ian Brown

LECTURE 2Interactions of the Nucleus and CytoplasmSlide 1 Two Major Cellular CompartmentsDiagram 1Two 2 major compartments in the eukaryotic cellsProkaryote cells are bacteria Eukaryotic cells found in plants andor animalsTwo 2 compartments are the nucleus and the cytoplasmWhat goes on in nucleusThis is the main site of the DNA and its associated proteins which produce chromatin DNA plus proteinsGenetic information is contained in the nucleusDNA replication is when a cell dividesThe cell needs to replicate its DNA so its daughter cells will have the exact DNA as the parent cellPrior to cell division genetic information in the parent cell is duplicated and the daughter cell will get the same set of genes as the parent cellDifferential gene expression happens when different genes are turned on and off in regards to expression or RNA synthesisThis is the process of gene expressionGene expression in the nucleus is differentialGene expressions are turned on and off in RNA synthesis Post transcriptional events which is transcription and RNA synthesis which occursafter the RNA has been createdThis is called post transcriptional events also called RNA splicingThe first messages contain intron and exon sequences these sequences need to be spliced outPoly adenilation is one end of a messageAfter the intron sequence is out an enzyme adds a nucleotide to end of message and it becomes polyadenilaneBy adding a tail this stabilizes the message and controls the halflifeThis is shipped out into cytoplasmCytoplasmIs the site of protein synthesisRNA is made in the nucleus then shipped out and turned into proteins in cytoplasmThe message sequence is translated into the proteinIt requires ribosomes and transfer RNA this happens in cytoplasmThis is also the site of deposition of newly synthesized proteinsIt gives the cell its shapeCatalytic enzymes gives unique structure and functionThis is the site of specific organelles mitochondria and ribosomesThey are organized in cytoplasmSlide 3 Two Key Questions in Developmental Biology1Does the nucleus affect the cytoplasm2Does the cytoplasm affect the nucleus1AnswerYes as a result of differential gene expressionThis occurs in the nucleusDifferent genes are turned and shipped out which become proteins
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