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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Stefan Rusyniak

LYMPHATICS November 12, 2012 - Lymphatic circulation carries fluid in tandem with your blood vessels - Lymphatic fluid is mostly made up of water! - Check diagram - What’s happening as the pre capillary arterioles are moving their fluids? Theres leakage of fluids into the interstitium - Antigen: a fragment of a cell or bacteria/virus that has been broken down by antigen presenting cells o Foreign body is engulfed by a macrophage and broken down – has short units of 9 – 10 polypeptides fragments it can display on the surface o T – lymphocytes have to recognize I f the peptides are part of the body’s own system or different - Lymph nodes are areas or aggregations of lymphatic tissues where these antigen carrying cells can interact with larger popns of the immune system o We consider these to be secondary lymphatic organs - B lymphocytes – bone marrow derived - T lymphocytes – fully derived in the thymus - Diffuse lymphatic tissue – recognizable as lymphatic tissue but it doesn’t have as well of an organized structure as an organ would o Has to underlie most of the mucosal membranes of the body o Right under the mucous membranes we have to have lymphatic tissues because we are in direct contact with outside world in those areas - Immunocompetent: able to function for the immune system - Slide : bone marrow o We see osteocytes o Looking at spongy bone – spicule of bone o We can see collagen fibers all nicely arranged o Bubble space: adipose tissue – big component of bone marrow o Basophilic cells are bone marrow - site of white and red blood cell production o Eosinophilic ones are almost ready red blood cells ready to be ejected - Lymphocytes in secondary lymph organs wait for antigen presenting cells to come display something that they can have an interaction with - Areas around the throat, armpits – drainage areas - Secondary lymph organs include lymph nodes and lymph nodules o Lymph nodules don’t have an capsules - Tonsils: another one o Scratchy throat: some b cell has been activated – swelling (acute inflammation) presses against tissues around it and it hurts - Largest lymphatic organ is the spleen o Left side o f abdomen o If we get splenic enlargement – splenomegaly o Spleen filtrates red blood cells out – senescent red blood cells o Huge area of lymphocyte aggregation o Mononucleosis: our mono nucleo lymphocytes are becoming too abundant so spleen needs to get rid of it so you get splenomegaly o What diseases called rbcs to burst or lyse? – sickle cell anemia – sickled rbcs that clog up in small capillaries of spleen that are then removed - Antigen presenting cells present peptide s of larger cells that are complex to MHC complex cells – MHC = Major histocompatibility complex - Antigen presenting cells are most of the members of the monophagocytic system as well as dendritic cells (apcs) - We also have cells of the thymus that act as APCS but are very different from monophagocyte system - ERCS – 6 types found in t
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