blood vessel lecture

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Biological Sciences
Stefan Rusyniak

1 Tunica Intima o they have antithrobogenproduce thrombus ie blood clotpropertiestend to prevent clotting from happening o Blood stream have lots of cells in it has various factors flowing through it enzymes and proenzyme o There is a constant balance of clotting and nonclotting o If things go out of balance there is clots being formed o Under normal conditions endothelial cells prevent clotting by secreting factorsie endothelial was by default to be antithrobogenico Provides frictionless surfaces and has nothing for blood stream to attach to when blood is passing threw o Changes completely when there is damage to the endothelial when its activated o Damage a cut on the endothelial cells on the tunica intimawill allow endothelial cells to becomewill promote blood clotting if it is damaged Prothrobogenico Growth factors present within platelets that allows regrow and repair of the damaged area o If introduced a bumpkink by blood clottingtheres going to be turbulent and might settle at the kink that was produced by damaging o By accumulating lots of these clotting factors together there will probably be likely to clot even more o Growth of a blood clotdiagram o Blood clotthrombuso Damage resulting in a bump on the endothelium can also occursomething underneath the endothelial tissueo Thrombus can break off to become a embolus that will clog arteries downstream y Subendothelial connective tissue o Macrophage will start to pick up lipid dropletso So we end up with a cell that hasbubbles within it and is now referred as a foam cell o Foam cells will also attract calcium as a result these factors make the region very inflexible and rigid which is not good form thrombus or emboluso Which has the potential to o As this plaque is formed within the subendothelial connective tissue increases in size the lump on the surface will also increase in sizewhich will exclude the blood in that area o It will become large enough to form a blockage diagram o Clots in blood vessels atherosclerosis plaque form in the endothelial tissuesCondition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials cholesterol It is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels a chronic inflammatory such as response in the walls of arteries caused largely by the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by lowdensity lipoproteins the foam cell aggregation in the subendo CT without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophageshardening or furring of the arteries o Formation of the plaques narrows the lumenWhen it is narrowed and blood is still going at the same force the force is determined by the myocardium force at the heart not by the diameter of the BV eventually leads to high blood pressureo HBP will cause blood clot and will form thrombus and then embousflushes the bump off the BV wall and down to the systemic extermetiesoECT in young blood vessel is very thin as we age it accumulates by forming such blood clotsthrombus and more material builds up o As it accumulates it affects the lumen as it shrinks it narrower and narrower lumen as we get older
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