Balanced Diet

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Biological Sciences
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Balanced Diet  Energy Balance o Energy is obtained from food  Main energy from carbohydrates (glucose) and fats  Proteins are used for growth and repair first  Excess proteins is converted to energy o Out of balance  More energy/food than required → obesity  Less energy/food than required → starvation o Types of carbohydrates  Intrinsic sugars: found within cells (fruits)  Extrinsic sugars: sugars that have been added to food (processed food)  Milk sugars: found in milk products  Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) o Energy needed at rest (not when asleep!) for routine tasks of cells (excrete waste) o Factors that influence BMR  Age  Young > Old  Growth requires more energy → children, pregnant women (fetus)  Young and active people have more muscles than older people  Sex  Male > Female  Women have more adipose than muscle tissue  Muscles (work out) require more energy than fat cells (storage)  Body size  Tall and thin > short and obese  Tall and thin people have a large surface area but small volume  Loose heat quicker  Need more energy to maintain body temp  High body mass > Low body mass  High body mass → more cells that require energy  Starvation o No carbohydrates and fats are available in the diet o Body starts to break down its own proteins (muscles) Function of Fibres  Polysaccharides (cellulose) that cannot be broken down by enzymes in the gut o Reduce absorption of carbohydr
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