Clinical Context

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Biological Sciences
Malcolm Mac Kinnon

feelings by applying in a clinical context the methods used and the discoveries made by experimental psychologists in their study of both normal and abnormal behaviour. Counter-conditioning and exposure: because learning paradigms assume that behaviour is the result of learning, treatment often involves relearning a new, more adaptive response. counter-conditioning is relearning achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence of a particular stimulus. A response to a given stimulus can be eliminated by eliciting a new response in the presence of that stimuli. systematic desensitization: - A person who suffers from anxiety works with the therapist to compile a list of feared situations, starting with those that arouse minimal anxiety and progressing to the most frightening. - The person is also taught to relax deeply - Step-by-step, while relaxed, the person imagines the graded series of anxiety-provoking situations - The relaxation tends to inhibit any anxiety that might otherwise be elicited by the imagined scenes. - The fearful person becomes able to tolerate increasingly more difficult imagined situations as he climbs the hierarchy over a number of therapy sessions. aversive conditioning: a stimulus attractive to the patient is paired with an unpleasant event, such as a drug that produces nausea, in the hope of endowing it with negative properties. Operant Conditioning: Several behavioural procedures derive from operant conditioning. Problem behaviour is thought to have four possible consequences; attention seeking, e
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