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Biological Sciences

Plant Physiology BGYB31 Midterm Notes 1PART 3 Mineral NutritionSolute Transport3 KPOy Autotrophic sunlight CO H0 mineral nutrients inorganic ions in soil eg NO4223y Selective uptake prevents uptake of dangerous things like aluminum Required nutrients are accumulated to highy Essential nutrients have a clear physiological biochemical role absence will cause growthreproduction abnormalities y Nutritional studies Grow plantsunder defined nutrient solutionswithhold a chemical and see if the plant can complete a life cyclecontaminant free chemicals must be controlled so that if you withhold a chemical absolutely 0 of it is present hard to do especially because some nutrients are only needed in tiny amounts Also the required amount can be so little that it might receive it from its parents as a seed y Hydroponics roots are submersed in defined nutrient mediumLarge volume required so that nutrientwouldnt change much over timeUse relatively high s and change them frequentlyAeration is important to make sure the roots get enough oxygen preventing root floodingEssential nutrients are at adequate levels for optimal growth y Macronutrients Micronutrients tableAdequate tissue levels of elements that may be required by plantsa Obtained from watercarbon dioxide H C O b Obtained from soil Macronutrients N P K Ca Mg S Si large amounts of needed N P K are the greatest limiting nutrient used commonly in fertilizerMicronutrients Cl Fe BMn Na Zn Cu Ni Mo little amounts needed y Nutrient Solutions optimal solution for plant growthstandard formulations eg Hoaglands solutionUse the highestpossible wout causing toxicity or salinity stress reduces water potentialnitrogen is supplied as both NHNO to buffer against pH changes affects availability of other ions 43 chelating agents to maintain cations such as Fe or Ca in solution by forming complexes that are soluble For example in high pH soil Fe will react quickly w hydroxyl group forming ferrix hydroxide which isnt available to plants32Fe6OH2FeOHFeO insoluble ions must be soluble for uptake 323 artificial chelators EDTA DTPA binds to Fe3 keeping it solublenatural chelators citric acid in xylem are used to keep ions in solution while their traveling up the planty Nutrient Deficiency characteristic symptoms are rare most nutrients have manygeneralleaf chlorosis yellowing of leaf due to lack of chlorophyll because there isnt enough NH3 which is very important for chlorophyllNecrosis dead spots on the leaf where a small group of cells dieyou can get an idea of which nutrient it is depending on where the symptoms are ie are the nutrients mobileimmobile You would expect young tissue to be the first effected because it has the highest needs Immobile nutrient deficiency is what effects the youngest parts first but mobile nutrient deficiency ex N will appear in older tissue first because the plant will sacrifice older tissue to keep the young ones growingremobilization occurs withign the phloem in response to hormone signals Mobile ImmobileN K Mg P Cl Na Zn Mo Ca S Fe B Cu y In agricultural settings nutrient deficiency results in reduced yield and requires heavy fertilization requirements chemical organic y Nitrate anion isnt very well absorbed by soil and can runoff very easily when theres heavy rain waisting nitrogen and causing pollution y Need for fertilization assessed by 1 Soil analysis to determine nutrients potentially available in soil difficult to relate to plant requirements because there are other factors that affect whether the plant can take in a nutrient or not such as its oxidation Also plant requirements change throughout its life seed vs old tree
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