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BIOC32H3 (118)
Lecture 10


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Joanne Nash

lec10 spinal cord 1. 4 regions information flow in the spinal cord 2. two roots coming in and out a. dorsal roots i. information flow in ii. collection of information in dorsal root ganglia iii. projection into spinal column from ganglia iv. afferent projections  arrive v. cell bodies outside the spine 1. i.e. ganglia b. ventral roots i. information flow out ii. efferent projections  exit iii. begins inside spinal column 1. cell bodies located inside the spinal cord (therefore no ganglia outside the spine) segregation of information flow in the spinal cord 1. ascending tracts 2. descending tracts 3. bidirectional tracts 4. columns vs nuclei a. columns are made up of axons functions of the brainstem 1. components of brainstem a. medulla i. detection of noxious stimuli 1. toxic chemicals in the blood 2. induces vomiting b. pons c. midbrain 2. brain stem system a. reticular activating system distributed throughout b. maintains focus c. more central role cranial nerves 1. remember the cranial nerves for the exam a. old officers often trust the army for a glory vague and hypothetical cerebellum 2. main function a. coordination b. precision c. accurate timing of movements i. integration of sensory information to fine tune movement 3. higher cognitive functions a. language (precise ability) b. attention c. fear d. pleasure diencephalon: thalamus 1. diencephalon consists of a. thalamus b. hypothalamus c. pituitary gland d. pineal gland e. basal ganglia 2. thalamus a. convergence of sensory information EXCEPT for olfaction b. helps us get rid of unimportant information i. sorts through sensory information that is not relevant ii. plasticity iii. sends information to appropriate region of the cortex (acting as a relay center) iv. specific nuclei located in the thalamus that specialize in specific functions c. reciprocal connections to the cerebellum i. sending information back and forth about sensory information ii. makes adjustments accordingly hypothalamus and pineal gland 1. hypothalamus a. four f's i. fighting ii. fleeing
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