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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Action Potentials

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kenneth Welch

Lecture 8 Action Potentials Frog Muscle Cell The Goldman Equation: forces dictating electrical and concentration gradients Leak Channels: resting cells; permeable to K+ and open at rest Perturb the system: o Puncturing the cell o Applying a current across the electrodes to drive the _____ o Positive current moving into the cell and we can see the effect of this current by the use of recording equipment Excitable cells: Hyperpolarized: already polarized and make it more polarized by moving it away from 0 Accommodation: when a neuron is subjected to subthreshold stimuli of slowly increasing intensity, the threshold potential increases; determines how individual neurons respond to input whether they are continuously active or produce only bursts of APs o Some neurons accommodate rapidly and generate only one or two APs at the beginning of the stimulus period = phasic response o Other neurons accommodate more slowly and fire repeatedly, although with gradually deceasing frequency, in response to a prolonged constant stimulus have a = tonic response The difference among neurons plays a key role in how sensory neurons transmit information
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