Chapter 2: Health Disparities
Determinants of health are those factors that influence the health of individuals.
Health disparities refer to differences in measures in the health status among groups of people
in a community, a state, or the entire nation.
Racial, ethnic, and cultural differences exist in the health screening behaviors, treatments
provided, and access to health care providers.
Factors such as stereotyping and prejudice can affect health care seeking behavior in minority
Discrimination and bias occur when negative treatment occurs based on race, ethnicity, gender,
aging, and sexual orientation.
Use of standardized evidence-based guidelines can reduce health disparities in diagnosis and
Interpersonal skills such as active listening, relationship building, and effective communication
are basic to the delivery of high quality and equitable health care.
Chapter 4: Health History and Physical Examination
The nurse and physician both obtain a patient history and perform a physical examination, but
they use different formats and analyze the data differently.
The nursing assessment includes both subjective and object