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respiratory tract

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Biological Sciences
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Stephen Reid

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Chapter 26: Respiratory System STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS  The primary purpose of the respiratory system is gas exchange, which involves the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the blood.  The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, pharynx, adenoids, tonsils, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea.  The lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli.  In adults, a normal tidal volume (VT), or volume of air exchanged with each breath, is about 500 ml.  Ventilation involves inspiration (movement of air into the lungs) and expiration (movement of air out of the lungs).  ABGs are measured to determine oxygenation status and acid-base balance. ABG analysis – includes measurement of the PaO , P2CO , a2idity (pH), and bicarbonate (HCO ) i3 arterial blood.  Arterial oxygen saturation can be monitored continuously using a pulse oximetry probe on the finger, toe, ear, or bridge of the nose.  The respiratory center in the brainstem medulla responds to chemical and mechanical signals from the body.  A chemoreceptor is a receptor that responds to a change in the chemical composition (PaCO 2 and pH) of the fluid around it.  Mechanical receptors are stimulated by a variety of physiologic factors, such as irritants, muscle stretching, and alveolar wall distortion.  The respiratory defense me
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