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BIOC33H3 (127)

Reproductive System

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Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

Chapter 51: Reproductive System STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS  The primary roles of male reproductive system are production and transportation of sperm, deposition of sperm in female reproductive tract, and secretion of hormones. o The primary male reproductive organs are the testes.  The primary roles of female reproductive system are production of ova, secretion of hormones, and protection and facilitation of the development of the fetus in a pregnant female. o The primary female reproductive organs are the ovaries.  The hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads secrete numerous hormones that regulate the processes of ovulation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, and formation and function of secondary sex characteristics.  In women, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) production by anterior pituitary stimulates growth and maturity of ovarian follicles. o Mature follicle produces estrogen, which in turn suppresses the release of FSH. In men, FSH stimulates seminiferous tubules to produce sperm.  Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries. o Estrogen is essential to development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics, proliferative phase of menstrual cycle immediately after menstruation, and pregnancy uterine changes. o Progesterone is also involved in body changes of pregnancy.  The major gonadal hormone of men is testosterone, which is produced by the testes. Testosterone is responsible for development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics and spermatogenesis.  Menarche is the first episode of menstrual bleeding, indicating that a female has reached puberty. o This usually occurs at 12 to 13 years of age. o The length of the menstrual cycle generally ranges from 20 to 40 days.  The major functions of ovaries are ovulation and secretion of hormones. These functions are accomplished during the menstrual cycle.  If fertilization occurs, high levels of estrogen and progesterone continue to be secreted due to continued activity of corpus luteum from stimulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). o If fertilization does not take place, menstruation occurs because of a decrease in estrogen production and progesterone.  Menopause is the physiologic cessation of menses associated with declining ovarian function. It is usually considered complete after 1 year of amenorrhea.  The sexual response is a complex interplay of psychologic and physiologic phenomena influenced by a number of variables, including daily stress, illness, and crisis. o Changes that
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