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BIOC33/BIOC34 Lec 1

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Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

BIOC34 Lec 1  Labs o Practice labs o Will have to submit lab reports  Simulated labs o Software available at bookstore o Older editions are fine o Only difference, prior to edition 9, it was on CD o Only need to submit 5 assignments - simulated labs, data analysis, questions, etc.  Labs 6, 5, 7, 9, 10 o Due Fridays before 4 pm  Human Physiology II o 4 main topics: o Cardiovascular physiology: 1. Electrical activity of the heart  Start by looking at basic electrical activity in area called sinoatrial (SA) node  heart’s pacemaker  Keeps heartbeat regular and constant  Cause AP in contractile muscle cells  In heart, have cells that function as nerves, modified to conduct electrical activity  Pacemaker potential, pacemakerAP and cardiac AP have some similarities as neuronal AP 2. Electrocardiogram (ECG) - shows how heart is working  Allows us to interpret abnormalities in the heart 3. Electrical axis of the heart - overall direction by which electrical activity flows in the heart over the course of an entire cycle of contracting and relaxation  Flows down chest in 60 degree angle  If it starts to move to left or right, says that one side of the heart is getting larger than the other 4. Cardiac cycle - series of pressure and volume changes; valve opening and closing during cycle of contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) 5. Regulation of cardiac output  Function of heart rate (beats/min) and stroke volume (amount of blood pumped per beat)  Stroke volume regulation is complex 6. Regulation of blood flow  Involves regulating cardiac output and regulating the resistance to blood flow in various blood vessels 7. Heart failure  How cycles of bad things keep happening 8. Blood pressure regulation  Respiratory system o 1. Pulmonary mechanics - changes in pressure, volume, muscle activity, chest contraction,  Like the heart o 2. Spirometry - measures lung volume and lung capacities  Can tell if you have lung disease o 3. Lung volumes and capacities o 4.Alveolar ventilation  The amount of air that gets into parts of our lungs that exchange gases with blood  Lungs have as a conductive zone - where air is moving to the lower part of the lungs and a respiratory zone where gas is moved from the lung into the blood  When breathing too fast, moving trachea in and out and not moving air into respiratory zone o 5. Blood gas transport  Moving oxygen from lungs into tissues o 6. Ventilation -perfusion matching  Trying to optimize the amount of blood flow into lungs relative to airflow in and out of the lungs for optimal gas exchange o 7. Control of breathing  Might think breathing is simple, unlike the heart that has pacemaker cells, many cells in brainstem and midbrain involved in regulation of producing a single breath o Sleep and sleep-related breathing disorders  Renal Physiology: Kidney o 1. Filtration, reabsorption, etc. o Agiant filter; filters plasma every 20 minutes. Filters anything small enough that it can filter and to reabsorb back into blood things that do not want to be rid of o 2. Look at regulatory systems (Sodium, K, Ca Regulation) o 3.Aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide; renin-angiotensin system  Important in blood pressure control  Angiotensin II is the most powerful constrictor of blood vessels o 4. Glucose Regulation/clearance o 5. The Medullary Osmotic Gradient o 6. Formulation of a hyperosmotic urine  Refers to increase in osmolarity in extracellular fluid going out from into kidney, which allows us to produce urine more concentrated than plasma, due to tthis osmotic gradient in the fluid o 7.Acid-base balance - keeping blood PH in a narrow range; doesn’t take much deviation up or down to become fatal  Going 0.2 up or down, can lead to severe problems  pH is value being regulated  Bicarbonates can go out of whack to regulate pH  Cardiovascular system o ECG - measured by putting electrode on chest or limbs and measuring activity going to heart by picking up through electrodes o Through this unit, keep in mind, all regulatory systems talked about are used to keep blood pressure from falling too low - most important function of cardiovascular system  High blood pressure takes years to kill  Low blood pressure can kill in minutes - brain will not get enough oxygen and will die  Everything is trying to keep blood pressure at a normal level -- main thing is to keep it from dropping o Can narrow CV control through these equations:  CO (cardiac output) = HR x SV  BP = CO x PR (total peripheral resistance in circulatory system, refers to blood flow)  BP = (HR x SV) x PR  All regulatory systems will impinge on one of these variables o There are mechanisms that affect blood plasma so if we retain water, there is greater pressure which impinges on blood pressure and affects stroke volume o These are important in keeping blood pressure constant  Heart valves and major blood vessels o 4 chambered  Right side and left side  Atria and ventricles are separated by valves • Tricuspid (AV) valve • Bicuspid (AV; mitral) valve o Right atria receives deoxygenated blood from superior and inferior vena cava o Blue = deoxygenated blood, red = oxygenated blood o Blood in venus system comes from veins o From under heart, comes in through inferior vena cava. From upper regions, goes into superior vena cava and moves into right atria then right ventricle o Blood from right ventricle is pumped to the lungs from pulmonary arteries o Right ventricle and pulmonary article is separated by the semilunar valve o Pulmonary arteries are colored blue. Usually arteries carry oxygenated blood. This is the only case where it carries deoxygenated blood  Arteries are called arteries because they move blood away from the heart o Blood flows from the lungs to the pulmonary veins  Enter left atria  left ventricle  get pumped to aorta to systemic circulation o Right side of heart receives deoxygenated and pumps to lungs; left side receives oxygenated and goes to systemic circulation o When looking at ventricle, muscle on the left side is much bigger because the left ventricle has to pump blood from aorta into systemic circulation  Blood pressure in systemic circulation is higher than in pulmonary circulation  Need more strength because it is a high pressure circuit o Right side pumping into less pressure area therefore, smaller muscles  Patterns of blood flow o CO2 moving from tissue into blood, blood goes into right atria  RV  lungs  CO2 is excreted  O2 is taken up  goes t
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