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Study_Guide_for_Lectures_9_to_15_2013.doc

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid
Semester
Winter

Description
1 BGYC33/CC4 Respiratory System Study Guide, Lectures 9-15 (2013) Lecture 9: Pulmonary Mechanics Topics The Respiratory Tract Conducting Zone Respiratory Zone Blood Flow to the Lungs Thoracic Cavity and Respiratory Muscles Diaphragm; Intercostal Muscles; Abdominal Muscles; Chest Wall; Phrenic Nerve Inspiration Expiration The Pleura Parietal Pleura; Visceral Pleura; Pleural Space Pulmonary Pressures Atmospheric Pressure (P )atmlveolar Pressure (P );alvtrapleural Pressure (P ) ip Important Pressure Differences P atm PalvDriving force for air flow in and out of the lungs P alv =ipranspulmonary Pressure (drives lung expansion) Damage to the Pleura / Pleural Space Pneumothorax Tension Pneumothorax Haemothorax Pleural Effusion Asbestosis Air Flow In and Out of the Lungs Lung Compliance 2 Sample Questions 1) Transpulmonary pressure is: a) P - P and the driving force for airflow in and out of the lungs. atm ip b) Patm- Pipnd the driving force for lung expansion. *c) Palv aip the driving force for lung expansion. d) Palv ipd the driving force for airflow in and out of the lungs. e) Palv ipd increased by a pneumothorax. 2) In the diagram below, Palvlative to Patm(the upper trace) decreases in the part of the curve labeled “A” because the “X”; while lung pressure decreases in area labeled “E” because “Y”. a) X = lung volume decreases; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases. b) X = diaphragm contracts; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases. c) X = lung volume decreases; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs increases. *d) X = lungs expand; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases. e) X = lung volume increases; Y = the diaphragm relaxes. C D E A B 3) During inspiration, transpulmonary pressure because the decrease in is greater than the decrease in . *a) Increases; intrapleural pressure; alveolar pressure. b) Decreases; intrapleural pressure; alveolar pressure. c) Increases; alveolar pressure; intrapleural pressure. d) Decreases; alveolar pressure; intrapleural pressure. e) Increases; atmospheric pressure; intrapleural pressure. 3 Lecture 10: Pulmonary Mechanics and Spirometry Topics Air Flow In and Out of the Lungs Ideal Gas Law Air Flow = (P - P ) / R atm alv P alvends on Lung Volume and the Number of Moles of Gas in the Lungs Inspiration: Changes in Pressure, Volume and the # Moles of Gas Expiration: Changes in Pressure, Volume and the # Moles of Gas Pressure Volume Changes during Inspiration Lung Compliance Surface Tension of a Liquid LaPlace’s Law Pressures in Large and Small Alveoli Pulmonary Surfactant Airway Resistance Passive Forces Bronchiole Smooth Muscle Mucus Secretion Spirometry Lung Volumes Tidal Volume (V T) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Residual Volume Lung Capacities Inspiratory Capacity Vital Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Total Lung Capacity Sample Questions 1) The following values were obtained using the inert gas technique. Use these volume to calculate the volume of the lung at the time the test began. Do not worry about units. Concentration of He in the spirometer before the test begins: 20 Concentration of He in the spirometer at the end of the test: 10 Volume of the spirometer: 100 a) 50 *b) 100 c) 200 d) 250 e) 1000 4 2) Based on the following diagram, what are the following lung volumes? Note the maximum value on the Y-axis is 5 700. a) VT = 500 ml; IRV = 3 500 ml; ERV = 1000 ml; RV = 1200 ml b) VT = 500 ml; IRV = 3 500 ml; ERV = 2200 ml; RV = 1200 ml c) VT = 1000 ml; IRV = 3 000 ml; ERV = 1000 ml; RV = 2200 ml d) VT = 500 ml; IRV = 3 000 ml; ERV = 1000 ml; RV = 1200 ml e) VT = 500 ml; IRV = 3 000 ml; ERV = 2200 ml; RV = 1200 ml 3) Consider the following three patients and their FEV1 and FVC values. Based on these numbers which patient is normal and which patient has an obstructive or restrictive lung disease? Patient 1: FEV 1 4.0; FVC = 5.0 Patient 2: FEV 1 1.5; FVC = 3.0 Patient 3: FEV 1 2.9; FVC = 3.0 a) Patient 1 = normal; Patient 2 = restrictive disease; Patient 3 = obstructive disease. b) Patient 1 = restrictive disease; Patient 2 = normal; Patient 3 = obstructive disease. c) Patient 1 = normal; Patient 2 = obstructive disease; Patient 3 = restrictive disease. d) Patient 1 = obstructive disease; Patient 2 = restrictive disease; Patient 3 = normal. e) Patient 1 = restrictive disease; Patient 2 = obstructive disease; Patient 3 = normal. 5 Lecture 11: Alveolar Ventilation and Blood Gases Topics Spirometry Pulmonary Function Tests Restrictive Lung Disease Obstructive Lung Disease Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) FVC and FEV du1ing Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Disease The Inert Gas (Helium Dilution) Technique The Inert Gas Technique Reviewed Minute Ventilation (V I) Breathing Frequency (f R ) Tidal Volume (V T) Alveolar Ventilation (VA ) Minute Ventilation Dead Space Ventilation (DSV) Increasing Breathing Frequency and Tidal Volume Calculating Alveolar Ventilation The Problem The Solution The Assumptions and Approximations Measuring Alveolar Ventilation using Exhaled and Arterial CO L2vels Blood Gases Partial Pressure of Gases Composition of Air; Atmospheric Pressure; Relative Humidity 6 Sample Questions 1) Which of the following is a reason for using the following equation to measure alveolar ventilation? V A = (VCO X2K) / P aCO 2 a) Anatomical dead space volume (K) is relatively easy to estimate. b) PA CO 2 P aCO 2 c) Arterial pCO 2s easily calculated from the Henderson-Hasselbach equation once arterial pH is measured (which is easy to do) d) PaO 2s easy to measure. 2) How many of the following 6 statements are false? 1) PCO 2 in blood entering the systemic veins is less than or equal to tCO 2 in the tissue cells. 2) PO 2in blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries is equal to theOP2in blood entering the systemic capillaries. 3) PO 2in the tissue cells is slightly less than (or at most equal to)O2hin blood leaving the systemic capillaries. 4) PCO 2 in blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is equal to theCO2 in the alveoli. 5) PO 2in mixed venous blood is equal to PCO 2in arterial blood in the systemic arteries. 6) PO 2in the atmosphere (at sea level) is equal to alveolaO 2 a) none b) one c) two d) three e) four 3) Blood with an arterial PCO 2f 45 Torr and an arterial PO 2f 90 Torr is referred to as: a) Hyperoxic hypercapnic b) Hyperoxic hypocapnic c) Hypoxic hypercapnic d) Hypoxic hypocapnic e) Hypoxic normocapnic 7 Lecture 12: Alveolar Ventilation and Blood Gases Topics Blood Gases Partial Pressures of Gases throughout the Circulatory System Perfusion Limitation of O2Uptake and CO Ex2retion Eupnea; Hyperpnea; Apnea; Dyspnea Hypoventilation; Hyperventilation Normoxia; Hyperoxia; Hypoxia Hypoxaemia Normocapnia; Hypercapnia; Hypocapnia Daily Oxygen Consumption Calculating Daily Oxygen Consumption Concluding that Dissolved Oxygen can’t Meet Daily Oxygen Demands Haemoglobin Daily Oxygen Consumption Reviewed Haemoglobin Changes in Haemoglobin with Development Sickle Cell Anaemia Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport in the Blood Carbonic Anhydrase Linking O 2nd CO Tr2nsport Transport Processes at the Lungs Transport Processes in the Tissues Oxygen-Haemoglobin Binding The Oxygen Equilibrium (Dissociation) Curve Positive Cooperativity Units of the X- and Y-Axes The p50 Value Left and Right Shifts of the Oxygen Equilibrium Curve Oxygen Loading and Unloading Resti
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