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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

1 BGYC33/CC4 Respiratory System Study Guide, Lectures 11-12 (2011) Lecture 11: Alveolar Ventilation and Blood Gases Topics The Inert Gas Technique Reviewed Minute Ventilation (VI) Breathing Frequency (fR ) Tidal Volume (V T ) Alveolar Ventilation (VA) Minute Ventilation Dead Space Ventilation (DSV) Increasing Breathing Frequency and Tidal Volume Calculating Alveolar Ventilation The Problem The Solution The Assumptions and Approximations Measuring Alveolar Ventilation using Exhaled and Arterial CO 2evels Blood Gases Partial Pressure of Gases Composition of Air; Atmospheric Pressure; Relative Humidity Partial Pressures of Gases throughout the Circulatory System Perfusion Limitation of O2Uptake and CO E2cretion Eupnea; Hyperpnea; Apnea; Dyspnea Hypoventilation; Hyperventilation Normoxia; Hyperoxia; Hypoxia Hypoxaemia Normocapnia; Hypercapnia; Hypocapnia Daily Oxygen Consumption Calculating Daily Oxygen Consumption Concluding that Dissolved Oxygen can’t Meet Daily Oxygen Demands Haemoglobin Sample Questions 1) Which of the following is a reason for using the following equation to measure alveolar ventilation? V A = (VCO 2 K) / P aCO 2 a) Anatomical dead space volume (K) is relatively easy to estimate. b) PACO =2P aCO 2 c) Arterial pCO2is easily calculated from the Henderson-Hasselbach equation once arterial pH is measured (which is easy to do) d) PaO2is easy to measure. 2 2) How many of the following 6 statements are false? 1) PCO 2 in blood entering the systemic veins is less than or equal to tCO 2in the tissue cells. 2) PO 2in blood leaving the pulmonary capillaries is equal to theO2 in blood entering the systemic capillaries. 3) PO 2in the tissue cells is slightly less than (or at most equal toO 2in blood leaving the systemic capillaries. 4) PCO 2 in blood entering the pulmonary capillaries is equal to thCOP2in the alveoli. 5) PO2 in mixed venous blood is equal to PCO 2in arterial blood in the systemic arteries. 6) PO2 in the atmosphere (at sea level) is equal to alveolaO2. a) none b) one c) two d) three e) four 3) Blood with an arterial PCO2of 45 Torr and an arterial PO2of 90 Torr is referred to as: a) Hyperoxic hypercapnic b) Hyperoxic hypocapnic c) Hypoxic hypercapnic d) Hypoxic hypocapni
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