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Biological Sciences

1 BGYC33/CC4 Respiratory System Study Guide, Lectures 13-15 (2011) Lecture 13: Blood Gases, Ventilation-Perfusion Matching and the Control of Breathing Topics Oxygen-Haemoglobin Binding The Oxygen Equilibrium (Dissociation) Curve Carbon Monoxide Ventilation (V) – Perfusion (Q) Matching V-Q Ratios with an Obstructed Airway V-Q Ratios with Obstructed Capillaries Regional Differences in Airflow and Blood Flow The Bottom of the Lung The Middle of the Lung The Top of the Lung Control of Breathing General Scheme of Respiratory Control The Central Control of Breathing Eupnea, Apneusis, Gasping and Apnea The Pontine Respiratory Group The Dorsal Respiratory Group (Nucleus of the Solitary Tract; NTS) The Ventral Respiratory Group The Bötzinger Complex The Nucleus Ambiguous The Nucleus Retroambiguous The Pre-Bötzinger Complex Respiratory Rhythm Generation Sample Questions 1) Which of the following statement regarding physiologic shunt is not correct? a) It is more likely to occur at the bottom of the lung rather than at the top of the lung. b) Blood is flowing but it is not oxygenated. c) It occurs when V/Q is greater than 1 d) It can occur when alveoli are destroyed by cigarette smoke. e) It can occur when alveoli are destroyed by asbestos. 2) Which of the following conditions would not lead to gasping? a) Anoxia b) Severe hypoxia c) Cerebral Ischemia d) A transection at the border of the pons and medulla e) A transection at the border of the medulla and spinal cord 2 3) Destruction of the nucleus of the solitary tract might be expected to cause which of the following changes in cardiorespiratory parameters/function? a) An increase in blood pressure. b) An decrease in blood pressure. c) An increase in arterial O 2 d) Apnea. e) Two of the above. 3 Lecture 14: The Control of Breathing Topics The Central Control of Breathing The Pre-Bötzinger Complex Respiratory Rhythm Generation Respiratory-Related Neurons Other Respiratory Control Systems Arterial Oxygen Chemoreceptors (The Carotid Body) Location and Connections Mechanisms of Oxygen Chemoreception (Sensing) The Mitochondrial Model The Heme Protein Model + Oxygen-Sensitive K Currents Arterial O 2nd CO Th2esholds of Increases in Breathing Central pH/CO – 2ensitive Chemoreceptors Location and Connections Mechanisms of pH/CO Chem2reception (Sensing) Pulmonary Stretch Receptors Slowly- and Rapidly-Adapting Mechanoreceptors The Hering-Breuer Reflex Breath-Holding Cheyne-Stokes Breathing at High Altitude Sample Questions 1) Which of the following is not a feature of the mitochondrial model of oxygen chemoreception? a) Cytochrome C in the gl++us cell is extra sensitive to low levels of O . 2 b) Voltage-sensitive Ca channels open. c) There is Ca /H exchange. + d) H ions build up inside the inner membrane of the mitochondria e) Two of the above are not features of this model. 2) Which of the followi
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