BGYC33/CC4 Study Guide, Lectures 21-24 (2011)
Lecture 21: The Digestive System: The Mouth to the Stomach
Overview of the Digestive System
Processes within the Digestive System
Layers of the Digestive System
Salivary Glands and Saliva
Esophagitis; Barrett’s Esophagus
Hiatal Hernia: (Sliding, Paraesophageal and Mixed)
Mechanical Processes: Mixing and Emptying
Gastric Pits and Gastric Pit Cell Types
HCl Secretion from the Parietal Cells
Mechanism of HCl Production
The Alkaline Tide
Pepsinogen Secretion from the Chief Cells
Conversion of Pepsinogen to Pepsin
Functions of Mucous
The Gastric Mucosal Barrier
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1) Regarding acid secretion into the stomach and its role in digestion, which of the following
statements is not correct?
a) HCl is actively secreted into the stomach from the chief cells.
b) HCl is involved in the activation of the enzyme pepsin.
c) HCl is involved in the breakdown of connective tissue.
d) HCl helps to kill microorganisms.
e) All of the above are correct. 2
2) Which of the following factors does not lead to a decrease in the rate of stomach emptying?
a) The presence of fat in the duodenum.
b) The presence of acid in the duodenum.
c) Distension of the duodenum.
d) The presence of peptides or amino acids in the duodenum.
e) Hypertonicity of the duodenum.
3) Which of the following is not a function of saliva?
a) It begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
b) It contains mucous that helps to lubricate the food stuffs.
c) It contains enzymes that destroy bacteria.
e) It begins the process of acidifying the food to assist in protein breakdown.
f) Two of the above are not functions of saliva.
4) What is the difference between a sliding and a paraesophageal hiatal hernia?
5) What is one possible physiological advantage of the development of Barrett’s esophagus? What is
6) Describe the processes of mechanical mixing in the stomach.
7) What is the role of HCl and pepsin? Why is pepsinogen secreted instead of pepsin? What factors
are required for pepsinogen to be converted to pepsin?
8) What are some of the roles of mucus secretion in the stomach?
9) What factors are involved in gastric ulcer production and development? 3
Lecture 22: The Intestine, Pancreas and Liver
The Small Intestine
Surface Area and Secretions into the Duodenum
The Large Intestine
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis
Islets of Langerhans
Effects of Insulin
Acute Complications of Diabetes
Long-Term Complications of Diabetes
Atherosclerosis – Heart Attack and Stroke
Blindness – Diabetic Retinopathy
Reduced Peripheral Circulation – Gangrene
Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage
Bile and the Biliary System 4
1) Where is bile synthesised?
a) Bile sinusoids.
b) Pancreatic acinar cells.
e) Bile canaliculi.
2) Which of the following statements is false?
a) During pancreatitis, pancreatic enzymes become active inside the pancreas.
b) Chronic pancreatitis is often caused by long term excess alcohol consumption.
c) Kidney stones can lodge in the pancreatic duct and aggravate the pancreas.
d) An endoscope can be used to remove blockages from the pancreatic or bile duct.
e) The duct cells of the pancreas no longer produce the watery bicarbonate solution.
3) What digestive enzymes and hormones are secreted from the pancreas? What are the endocrine and
exocrine functions of the pancreas?
4) Briefly describe the stages associated with the development of liver cirrhosis. 5
Lecture 23: Digestion and Absorption of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and
Bile Production and Secretion
Metabolic Processing of Nutrients
Removal of Old Red Blood Cells
Elimination of Wastes
Hormone Activation / Production
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Starch, Glycogen, Disaccharides and Monosaccharides
Salivary and Pancreatic Amylase
Brush Border Enzymes
Distribution of Absorbed Carbohydrates
Digestion and Absorption of Protein