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Biological Sciences
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1 BGYC33/CC4 Study Guide, Lectures 21-24 (2011) Lecture 21: The Digestive System: The Mouth to the Stomach Topics Overview of the Digestive System Processes within the Digestive System Layers of the Digestive System Peristalsis Salivary Glands and Saliva The Esophagus Acid Reflux Esophagitis; Barrett’s Esophagus Hiatal Hernia: (Sliding, Paraesophageal and Mixed) The Stomach Anatomy Mechanical Processes: Mixing and Emptying Chemical Processes Gastric Pits and Gastric Pit Cell Types HCl Secretion from the Parietal Cells Mechanism of HCl Production The Alkaline Tide Pepsinogen Secretion from the Chief Cells Conversion of Pepsinogen to Pepsin Mucous Secretion Functions of Mucous The Gastric Mucosal Barrier Gastric Ulcers Helicobacter Pylori Potentially Useful Websites Sample Questions 1) Regarding acid secretion into the stomach and its role in digestion, which of the following statements is not correct? a) HCl is actively secreted into the stomach from the chief cells. b) HCl is involved in the activation of the enzyme pepsin. c) HCl is involved in the breakdown of connective tissue. d) HCl helps to kill microorganisms. e) All of the above are correct. 2 2) Which of the following factors does not lead to a decrease in the rate of stomach emptying? a) The presence of fat in the duodenum. b) The presence of acid in the duodenum. c) Distension of the duodenum. d) The presence of peptides or amino acids in the duodenum. e) Hypertonicity of the duodenum. 3) Which of the following is not a function of saliva? a) It begins the breakdown of carbohydrates. b) It contains mucous that helps to lubricate the food stuffs. c) It contains enzymes that destroy bacteria. e) It begins the process of acidifying the food to assist in protein breakdown. f) Two of the above are not functions of saliva. 4) What is the difference between a sliding and a paraesophageal hiatal hernia? 5) What is one possible physiological advantage of the development of Barrett’s esophagus? What is the downside? 6) Describe the processes of mechanical mixing in the stomach. 7) What is the role of HCl and pepsin? Why is pepsinogen secreted instead of pepsin? What factors are required for pepsinogen to be converted to pepsin? 8) What are some of the roles of mucus secretion in the stomach? 9) What factors are involved in gastric ulcer production and development? 3 Lecture 22: The Intestine, Pancreas and Liver Topics The Small Intestine Surface Area and Secretions into the Duodenum The Large Intestine Anatomy Appendicitis Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis The Pancreas Exocrine Secretions Endocrine Secretions Islets of Langerhans Insulin Effects of Insulin Diabetes Acute Complications of Diabetes Ketoacidosis Dehydration Long-Term Complications of Diabetes Atherosclerosis – Heart Attack and Stroke Blindness – Diabetic Retinopathy Reduced Peripheral Circulation – Gangrene Diabetic Neuropathy Pancreatitis Removing Gallstones The Liver Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage Cirrhosis Bile and the Biliary System 4 Sample Questions 1) Where is bile synthesised? a) Bile sinusoids. b) Pancreatic acinar cells. c) Hepatocytes. d) Gallbladder. e) Bile canaliculi. 2) Which of the following statements is false? a) During pancreatitis, pancreatic enzymes become active inside the pancreas. b) Chronic pancreatitis is often caused by long term excess alcohol consumption. c) Kidney stones can lodge in the pancreatic duct and aggravate the pancreas. d) An endoscope can be used to remove blockages from the pancreatic or bile duct. e) The duct cells of the pancreas no longer produce the watery bicarbonate solution. 3) What digestive enzymes and hormones are secreted from the pancreas? What are the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas? 4) Briefly describe the stages associated with the development of liver cirrhosis. 5 Lecture 23: Digestion and Absorption of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Vitamins. Topics Liver Function Bile Production and Secretion Metabolic Processing of Nutrients Removal of Old Red Blood Cells Elimination of Wastes Hormone Activation / Production Protein Synthesis Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates Starch, Glycogen, Disaccharides and Monosaccharides Salivary and Pancreatic Amylase Brush Border Enzymes Distribution of Absorbed Carbohydrates Digestion and Absorption of Protein Pepsin Pancreatic Zymogens
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