Evolutionary Biology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Matthias Niemeier

Lecture 02 September 20, 2012 · Special Creation opposite of Darwinism · Species do not change · Each species separately created · Earth and life are young · Observations suggested · Species change over time; Extinctions · Time-series of species appearance · Environment had changed over time · Relatedness of species (similarity within diversity; tree of life) · The theory of evolution by Natural Selection · All species descended from one or a few original species: Descent with modification · Small Changes within populations from generation to generation can accumulate over long periods of time and lead to the origin of new species. Key mechanism = Natural Selection · Darwin realized that evolution by natural selection was inevitable if these 4 postulates are true. · Individuals within populations are variable · Some of these variations are passed on to offspring (i.e. are heritable) · Many more offspring are produced than can survive and reproduce · Survival and reproduction are not random. Fittest individual survive and reproduce. · Some traits = greater success in the st
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