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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Readings 4 Pgs 111-119 (refer to pgs. 366-369 and 376-379 after) -the evolutionary history of a group of species is called its phylogeny and a phylogenetic tree is a graphical summary of the history -an evolutionary tree describes the pattern and timing of events that occurred as species diversified -synapomorphies are homologous traits that are shared among certain species and are similar because they were modified in a common ancestor (shared derived traits) -synapomorphies are useful in estimating phylogenies -any group that includes an ancestor and all of its descendants is a monophyletic group -the first idea to understanding why evolutionary relationships can be inferred by analyzing synapomorphies is that synapomorphies identify evolutionary branch points -the second idea is that synapomorphies are nested in that each branching event adds one or more shared derived straits -phylogeny inference methods that use the two ideas are called cladistic methods -outgroup analysis is a basic cladistic method in which a relative that clearly branched off earlier is selected as the outgroup and is compared to a group of interest -in cases of similar traits that independently evolved in groups of species, species may share similar traits that were not derived from a common ancestor -morpohological similarities that have evolved independently in different lineages are due to convergent evolution -convergent evolution occurs when natural selection favours similar
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