Readings 6 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Readings 6 Pgs210 -218 (refer to example on pgs.210-211 and 211-214) -cystic fibrosis is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait -new disease alleles are constantly introduced into populations by mutation -mutation by itself is generally not a rapid mechanism of evolution -back mutations that restore function are much less common than loss of function mutations -back mutations convert loss of function copies a into wild type A -mutation converts 1 of every 10 000 copies of an allele A into a new copy of allele a -mutation can cause substantial change but it does so slowly (it can add and remove alleles) -in combination with selection, mutation becomes a crucial piece of the evolutionary process -within any given population, fitness increases dramatically in response to natural selection -each new mutation that benefits a population becomes fixed over time -selection acts to eliminate such mutations from populations because they are deleterious -deleterious alleles persist because they are continually created anew -mutation J selection balance is the equilibrium of an allele frequency when the rate of deleterious mutations eliminated is e
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