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Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Readings 7 Pgs 169-198 -the crucial insight of population genetics is that changes in relative abundance of traits in a population can be tied to changes in the relative abundance of the alleles that influence them -a gene pool is the total number of alleles in a population -a population has evolved when their final allele frequencies are different from their initial -genetic drift is blind luck that causes a population to evolve unpredictably -Punnett squares are used in Mendelian genetics to predict the genotypes among the offspring of a particular male and female -genotype frequencies among zygotes can also be predicted by multiplying probabilities -when blind luck plays no role, the allele frequencies are at equilibrium and no evolution occurs -,[Z o o]}L}Z2Lo Z}}Zzo~}2:]LZZ}Z any allele frequencies can be in equilibrium as long as the sum up to 1 -when there are two alleles at a given locus, their frequencies are p+q = 1 in which A1 is p and A2 is q -the probability of a given genotype A1-A1 is p = p x p A2-A2 is q = q x q and A1-A2 is 2pq -any allele frequencies can be in equilibrium -there are two fundamental conclusions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium -the first conclusion is that allele frequencies in a population will not change throughout generations -the second conclusion is that if allele frequencies in a population are given by p and q, the 2 2
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