Lecture 1 An Ultimate Approach 2012.pdf

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Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Lecture 1 STUD YING Animal Behaviour Taking an UTIMATEApproach. . . 1 The study ofAnimal Behaviour: A Historical Overview … ▯Comparative Psychology▯ (North America) The ▯Naturalists▯ melding together of BIOC54H the 2 camps pre 19th mid early century 1800s 1900s 1972 early late 1800s mid 1900s 2012 1800s ▯nature vs. ▯Ethology▯ nurture▯ ▯birth▯ ofAnimal ▯eat … (Europe) Behaviour:Nobel Prize in or be eaten▯ debate Medicine 2 ▯WHY?▯ NIK O TINBERGEN (1963) Can answer at 4 different levels: 1.  Causation ▯▯(Physiology) 2.  Ontogeny ▯▯(Development) 3.  Function ▯▯(Current,effects on fitness/ reproduction) 4.  Evolution ▯(Origins,change over time) 3 Why? 1.  PhysiologyRO XIMA TE answerson 2.  Ontogeny the operation of internal mechanisms ▯HOW▯ possessed by an individual 3. Fitness ULTIMAAATE answers 4. Evolution evolutionary,historical reason why ▯WHY▯ something is the way it is 4 e.g.Automeris moth ▯Why?▯ 1.  Physiology (“Causation”)) 2.  Ontogeny (Development) 3.  Function (Fitness/Reproduction) 4.  Evolutionary (Origin/History) Robert Patterson ▯wing-flap▯ behaviour 5 2.Ontogeny (development) Alan Chin-Lee 1.Physiology ▯Why?▯ 4.Evolution (history) 3.Fitness (▯function▯) 6 Recall (from BIOB51H)… EVOLUTION: Change in the frequencies of different “types” over time (relative to one another) BEHAVIOURAL Evolution : Change in the relative frequencies of different behaviours over time. How? HOW? 1. INDIVIDUAL LEARNING •  Alters the frequencies of behaviours within an organism’s lifetime 2. (Social Learning) ! CULTURAL TRANSMISSION •  Individuals copy others •  Allows rapid transmission of information ACROSS GENERATIONS … but if we define evolution as the relatalleleange in frequency over time … 3. NA TURAL SELECTION The process that produces evolutionary change when individuals differ in heritable traits that are correlated with differences in their individual reproductive success the MECHANISM by which evolution occurs. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/02/2/quicktime/l_022_04.html Theory of Natural Selection: HMS Beagle to 1. Individuals Golopogos Islands are unique & variable Artificial Selection 2. Variability is heritable 3.Differential Thomas survival and Malthus reproduction (late 1800s) “Darwinian Logic ”: 1. If, in a population, there are a variety of forms of a trait… e.g. “Darwin’s finches” (Galapog2. and there iheritable
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