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Lecture 9

Lecture 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rudy Boonstra

LECTURE 9 November 13, 2007 I came across this quote in The Economist the other day. There are places in Australia which is one of the bread baskets in the world and in some places it hasnt rained in 13 years. This one farmer in New South Whales had a little rain so he borrowed money to plant his crop and now he has a problem. There is no rain and that is devastating. Also I checked the weather network the other day and they have something called Climate Change and it is put up by David Suzuki. He has an interesting analogy and I suggest you take a look at it. It says that the evidence is overwhelming that climate change is happening. It say that we are all in a car and heading for a brick wall and the car is speeding up and the point is that everyone in the car is arguing about where they are sitting. He says that it doesnt matter because everyone is going to hit the wall! An Inconvenient Truth is the article by Al Gore and they say he shouldnt run because it shouldnt mix with politics. Everyone wants someone else to pay for the problem. Second part of biological impacts of climate change. How will the changing greenhouse gasses and climate warming affect the climate? We talked about CO2 levels and how they will affect plant communities. It wont have major effects as of yet. It is an urgent question. Remember on the earths planet we are not the only species, there is an estimate of about 30 million species. If we look at the complexity of the problem climate change is only one of five variables that affect the impact of humans on the world. Here you see the human population and remember it isnt just the size (6.6 billion) or how many humans are here but it has a major effect on the limited world. This is a problem i.e. water. Per capita we consume much more than people in the third word. Human enterprises like agriculture and industry have a major impact. There is a major oil spill in the Caspian this week. Recreation also has an affect i.e. like ATVs are ruining the environment. In Norway nobody can own a ski doo unless it is for work. So our human enterprises changes the land, there is massive land transformation. When I was a kid I thought that the Boreal forest wouldnt change but it has. If you ever fly to Vancouver and you go across the 49 parallel north is ranch land and south the Americans are growing crops and they shouldnt be planting there because extreme amounts of low moisture. BGYC58H3F.November,13,, 2007 LECTURE 9 1 We talked about the gasses and that changing. Biotic additions and losses i.e. invasion like the Zebra Mussels, hunting, and fishing. They are all interconnected to the loss of biological diversity. So is climate change responsible? Clearly sometimes it is. It is very interconnected in relationships. We have extinction of species and populations. If the species survives but they lose genetic material that is no longer part of the potential evolutionary framework for that species. Changes in Biological Systems There are 6 areas that we will tackle in terms of trying to observe the signatures of climate change. 1. Phenology changing in timing of many life cycle events. When plants bloom and animals migrate, etc. 2. Range animals and plants are ranging further north/south of the equator. 3. Abundance obviously it can go up and down. 4. Differential change here you get the real problem because if species are closely attuned to each other there is evolution but if you move away and emerge later I have a problem. There is a mismatch in individuals in the community and that can change relationships. 5. Extinction or expiration 6. Changing morphology, reproduction, or genetics Phenology I will throw out numbers but I will emphasize the numbers that you need to know. The ideas behind them are important and the examples in some sense but the numbers are overwhelming so you wont remember all of them. Is this going to be on the exam? Yesmaybe, but the other numbers wont be. This evidence is form Germany. The important things are temperature in Mar/Apr and Mar/Apr/May. Temperatures are changing. Then you can ask; how does that affect phenology? Note the negative numbers, this means things are happening earlier. It gives anomaly in terms of days and temperature. Things are getting warmer and happening earlier. Mean spring passage (birds) when they migrate through this place, Helgoland. We have Flycatchers here and this is the orange line. Unfolding of the Horse Chestnut tree. We have these trees here. Then we have the leaves unfolding on the Birch earlier. This type of evidence, remember the critical thing is long term in monitoring or you wouldnt know what was going on. The government has decided that we will get rid of wildlife research and everything will go to global warming! Some idiot thought this wouldnt be linked to global change but it isnt a government priority! Do they have any brains? By far most of the climate change responses have been in species phonologies. There are tight links between seasons and agriculture. Some of the earliest dates for phenology they come from a planting BGYC58H3F.November,13,, 2007 LECTURE 9 2 www.notesolution.comand harvesting dates. Then the associated changes with climate. They have been recorded backwards for 100s of years. Oddly, I dont know why people in N. Europe have this inclination but they say that people from other countries have been keen on recording the first signs of spring. Spring is important. The sun is disappearing and for many of us we are sad about that. In Norway spring would come and everyone would sit out on benches to observe the sun. Anyone have SAD? It is directly related to melatonin and phenology. The longest records of direct observations come from observing blooming of Cherry blossoms in Japan. This goes back 600 years. Apparently they look at this evidence and they first saw significant changes around the year 1900. Note that just outside these walls the Japanese Government gave us Japanese Cherries so look at them next spring. Same deal with the grape harvest. If you look at France April to August explain 84% of the variation of when grapes are harvested. This is fundamental to these people. The heat wave of 2003 was the warmest summer for 500 years and many people died. Most observations are 30 -> 50 years though. Critical number: (based on Meta analysis people gather together and put together different studies and decide on something) the bottom line is that for every 1C degree increase there is advancement in spring of 1 -> 12 days. The Meta analysis indicates that average values for phonological species are between 2.5 and 6 days per 1C degrees. That is the average not the range. Critical number: In terms of predicting every 10 years is it increases by about 2.3 t
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