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Lecture 8

# Lecture 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Biological Sciences

BIOC61H3

Herbert Kronzucker

Fall

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BGYC61H3 Lecture 8 November 3 2008 Biodiversity Focus on things that are quantitatively definable (, , and ) is testable material. What are the 3 types of biodiversity are there? You could answer in 2 ways either by definition or by , , or diversity. How do you know? Read the questions. The multi-part questions are very likely to be on the exam. I may ask you to calculate for me diversity and quantify certain diversity. You can only do that if you define them correctly. The next part could be a definition of the 3 diversities and on what level are they operating. Can you give me 2 indices that quantitatively define diversity? Can you give me a definition of diversity? What is it? S: You could use the Sorenson index and it is used at the scale. P: The scale will be in the answer and then you have to somehow define the terms with reasonable scientific definition. Calculating species diversity (H) for two hypothetical communities of forest trees. The Shannon-Wiener index is probably the most often used. We also have the Simpsons Index. On this chart we have 5 tree species. (Reads graph) You already know that both indices above attempts to accomplish the total number of species and also less easily done is to appraise how many of the species are in what area. In this case 84% of the trees samples were species 1 and the rest were species 2, 3, 4, and 5. You use a percentage and add them up to 100%. What is less obvious is what happens less for the Shannon-Wiener Index. Take your calculator to your exam in case you have to calculate something. Log pe are to the base of ehe natural logarithm. In biodiversity it is usualle which you are familiar with as le which has a numerical value of 2.7 roughly (you should know that). Take that natural logarithm and you get the Pi values. Notice how the log of the largest number becomes numerically the smallest number with a in front of it. The Shannon-Wiener Index is figures out for each line item. You sum them up, get the value (notice it is positive) and the negative is there because the sum cant be a positive number. What does the value mean? It means something when you go comparative i.e. community A and B in this case. Then you do the last column and sum it up. The larger it is the more diverse the community is considered to be by ecologists. The Shannon-Wiener Index can figure out the maximal biodiversity for an eco system for a given number of species (no matter what the number). The Shannon-Wiener index in the most diverse system here are all distributed with perfect evenness of distribution is the natural logarithm of the species. Take the natural logarithm of 600 = 6.39 if the 600 species are distributed with perfect evenness and this means each of the species occupies 1600 of the BGYC61H3F.November.3.2008 Lecture 8 1 www.notesolution.com

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