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Lecture 12

Lecture 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Herbert Kronzucker

BGYC61H3 Lecture 12 December 1 2008 Michael is available for office hours until next week and so will I so send a message if you like. I posted a sample exam on the intranet from last year. It will give you an idea of the questions. They are a blend of testing your definition knowledge and numbers that have been discussed here (excluding the student presentations here and in tutorials) unless the material has been discussed by me i.e. biodiversity. I wont specifically test anything on the student presentations. All of it will be done in small paragraph answers. There is no truefalse or fill in the blank etc. You will have to write something for all of them. You will not get any deductions if you use bullets and sentences as long as you make your answer clear. Sometimes it may be easier to sketch a graph to explain things i.e.max. If I ask you to do something graphically you must do that to receive the marks. Last year there was a different focus so the exam will be a little more personalized. We had more on biodiversity than last year and less on succession etc. As we go through the lecture today I will give you more tips. Strategies How organisms deal with disturbances that lead to successional sphere either primary or secondary. Example: forest fire from Yellowstone Park in 1988 where almost 13 of the park was subjected to wild fires. Many of the forests were Lodgepole pines and they love the fire disturbances. These are plants that are adapted for fires and they are called pyrofhytes plants. The regenerate in vast quantities after the fire because the cones open only under the fire temperatures (this is a review). This strategy is called serotiny. In turn it gives those babies a head startadvantage over other competing species. Another strategy that is seen is in the Sequoya Dendron Tree which is among the most massive plants on earth. These can be 1 to 1.5 thousand years old. You know the Bristle pines are even older i.e. 5,000 years. They also live in these ecosystems but higher up in the mountains. The Sequoya is also pyrophytes and produce chemicals in their bark that make them fire resistant. They cut off the oxygen supply so they dont burn to the ground. The ones that have been around for 1 or 1.5 thousand years have gone through many disturbances. This picture shows how you can drive through the trees. They can compartmentalize the damage and it wont kill it. Compartmentalization at the macroscopic level is well developed in these trees. You can cut the branches and they will seal it off so they wont die. They are anti-viral resins that are produced and smell beautiful. The chemicals help to seal the wound and reorganize the plumbing so that they dont die. Other pyrophytes are the Eucalyptus trees which is one of the most harvested trees. They are in Australia and when you walk through the forests they have a very nice smell. These trees are very flammable so they capitalize on fires in the opposite way. They burn down faster than the Lodgepole pines. They literally burn to the ground and then they re-establish from there. Many BGYC61H3F.December.1.2008 Lecture 12 1
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