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Lecture 19

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 19.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Karen Williams

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BIO C63Fall2013 Lecture 19: Design of reserves Alternative futures – Willamette valley   The number of people living in the future will be the same in all scenario (human pressure will be the same for all scenarios)  Outcome on the landscape is what will be very different Nature and National Parks – History of reserve creation  Monumentalism  19 century art was based on nature  beauty and preciousness  1872 – Yellowstone National Park becomes the worlds first national park  Creation of the park was not to save nature, but to conserve it for the people to enjoy  There was so few people that use that is not allowed today (like fishing) didn’t matter – was not a problem for susitainability  U.S. congress realized that the way ppl are interacting with this environment is not in a sustainable way   as population pressure increased, the number and size of protected sites also increased Categories of reserves  IUCN protected area categories  o Category I  strict nature reserve/ wilderness area  Area with some outstanding or representative ecosystem, geological or physiological features and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring 1  Polar Bear Pass National Wildlife Area Nunavut  Not open to the public  Protecting a very special area  conserving natural feature and putting humans on the side lines  People that are allowed in are researchers or people that need to monitor the conditions of the land o Category II  national park  Natural area designated to  Protect ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems  Exclude exploitation  Provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational, and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible  People are allowed, they should be learning of what is valueble in that park  All activities need to be environmentally friendly  Yellowstone National Park  Visitors kept on roads (concrete paths) to reduce interference and preserve natural stuff  Ontario’s 5 national Park  Pelee NP (15 km sq.)  Its important for the island to be sticking out so that birds that are migrating can see it as theyre flying and use it as their stopover sight to refuel and rest  Wetlands are accesible through the boardwalks  Bruce Peninsula NP (154 km sq.)  Georgian Bay Islands NP  20 – 30 islands  Use of the water inbetween the islands is allwoed  not sure if people can get to the islands by walking  St. Lawrence Seaway NP (24 km sq.)  Pukaswka NP (largest one – 1878 km sq.)  on lake superior (lower population pressure)  These national parks are not big and there is no overlap between Canadian biodiversity hotspots and the location of these conservation areas – only Pukaswka slightly overlaps with area of high biodiveristy o Category III  national monument  Area containing specific natural or cultural features of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic qualities or cultural significance  Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe  Category IV  habitat/species management area o Area subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species o Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania  Anti-poaching measures  Category V  protected landscape/seascape o Interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character (significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value), often with high b
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