BIOC63Fall2013Lecture 23.docx

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Biological Sciences
Karen Williams

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 23: The big picture – Environmental economics  Species and property rights o Large incentive to protect privately owned species o Low incentive to protect common animals  Wildnerness “cash-cows” o Big and dangerous animals capable of attracting paying visitors o Pay money to see these animals which can be used to protect the habitats where these species are living in  I.e. lions elephants polar bears  Maldives: sharks mean business o 50% of tourists go diving o 2.3 million $ just to go diving o Single Grey reef shark at one site (Maledives): worth 3,300 US$ o Profit to local fisherman, if caught: US$32 o 58% saw fewer sharks than expected o 83% of repeat visitors thought there was a decrease in # of sharks o → US$ 0.5 million loss of revenue just on one island o 1997, value of all sharks: 6.6 M $ (direct diving value) o o less sharks spottings recently o number or divers returning is decreasing  Protect rays and sharks o Creation of marine protected areas o Whale shark fishing prohibited o Export of rays and their skins prohibited o All shark fishing in tourist dive zones prohibited  Ecotourism o Mass tourism  lots of tourists, in little space, generates lots of money because it is cheap o Nature tourism  involves travel to unspoiled places to experience and enjoy nature. It usually involves moderate and safe forms of exercise such as hiking, biking, sailing, and camping o Wildlife tourism  involves travel to observe animals in their native habitats. o Adventure tourism  nature tourism with a kick: it requires physical skill and endurance (rope-climbing, deep-sea diving, bicycling, or kayaking) and involves a degree of risk-taking, often in little-chartered terrain. o mass money inflow  second largest global economic income (behind waste disposal) o ecotourism benefits conservation, people in host country and tourist o beyond nature tourism: respect and benefit protected areas as well as people living around or on these lands o Some money goes to the locals so that they can keep conserving the areas that people pay to see o Some profits go directly towards the conservtation o  Guiding principles for ecotourism 1 o Tourist activities must not degrade resource o Visitors should be offerred education first hand experiences o All steakholders must be involved  host community, government, non governmantl organizations, industry, tourists etc. o Tourism must respect intrinsic value of natural resources o Tourism cannot overtax resource supplies of local region o Stake holde must be encouraged to develop partnerships o Toursit revenue must provide conservation, scientific and culture benefits o All these things must be occuring at all times  Monetizing biodiversity o Ecotourism is the second largest spending after waste disposal  Tourism: Global economy o in 80% of countries  tourism is one of the top 5 export o for the 40 poorest countries, tourism imost important  oil is #1 o mass tourism  3% growth per year o ecotourism  30-40% growth per year!!!  Middle east > Africa > asia > Americas > Europe (in $$ tourism)   Ecotourists generally spend much more on vacations than regular tourists o Costa Rica, ecotourism: $1200/visitor o France, standard tourism: $400/visitor o Dominica: ecotourist spends 18x more $ than cruise o Where does the money go? o 80% of $$ of all-inclusive package tours → international companies (airlines, hotels) o Eco-lodges hire and purchase locally → up to 95% of $$ local  Guiding principles for ecotourism o Tourist activities must not degrade resource o Visitors should be offered educational first-hand experiences o All stakeholders (host community, government, non-governmental organizations, industry, and tourists) must be involved o Tourism must respect intrinsic value of natural resources o Tourism cannot overtax resource supplies o Stakeholders must be encouraged to develop partnerships o Tourist revenue must provide conservation, scientific, or cultural benefits to resource, local community, and industry as a whole o These benefits must be long term o Governmental control/reinforcement often weak  (1,5,8 guidelines) Having too man
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