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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Catherine Nash

1 Physiology Midterm Review Lecture 1: Introduction to Physiology What is Physiology? o Derived from the Greek phusis - PHYSIS and logia - DISCOURSE o The science which treats of the functions of ANIMALS o Study of the science of LIFE o how (i.e the MECHANISM underlying the function): oxygen binds to haemoglobin molecules in red blood cells o why (i.e the REASON): because cells need oxygen and red blood cells bring it to them Claude Bernard: o Also includes: neurotransmitters, hormones and chemicals Some of Claude Bernards Discoveries: o The role of the pancreatic secretion in the digestion of FAT (1848). o A new function of the liver--the internal secretion of GLUCOSE into the blood (1848). o Elevation of local skin temperature upon section of the cervical sympathetic nerve (1851). Which demonstrated that SKIN TEMP WAS CONTROLLED BY MECHANISMS DISTANT FROM THE SKIN o The demonstration that the CURARE specifically blocks neuromuscular junction (1856). Causing RELAXATION OF MUSCLES o The demonstration that carbon monoxide blocks the respiration of red blood cells (1857). Blocks binding of OXYGEN TO HAEMOGLOBIN So how do we understand mammalian physiology? o Days of Bernard = 1800s to 1900s didnt have the appropriate technology, so they studied the organism, sometimes by dissecting www.notesolution.com 2 o Genome project was started in 1999 and completed in 2003 and they discovered that each encodes several proteins 1) Apply an integrated approach 2) Requirement for hypothesis 3) Experimental design, e.g choice of the correct system (i.e MODEL) 4) Interpretation o Variability between subjects (human studies): age, health, lifestyle, weight o Psychological bias: caused by experimenter or subject (if human); placebo, cross over, double blinded o Ethical considerations: animal numbers, clinical trials with new drugs How physiologists use technology to understand how the body works: - Formulation of a hypothesis - Experimental design - Factors to be taken into consideration - How technology changes our understanding of science o Thalidomide in pregnant women cause mutation in the babies cause dolphin fin, but in certain cancer patients can be used to treat cancer Chapter 1 Review: o Physiology is the study of normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes o Physiology means knowledge of nature o Anatomy is the study of structure, with little emphasis on function o Levels of organization of living organisms range from atoms to groups of the same species to population of different species living together CHEMISTRY---------MOLEC. BIO----CELL. BIO-----PHYSIOLOGY---------------------------------------------------- ECOLOGY Atoms>molecules>>>>cells>>>>>tissues>>>>>>organs>organ systems>organisms>pop. of 1 species>ecosystem of diff. System>biosphere o Homeostasis: Derived from: homeo: similar -stasis: condition www.notesolution.com
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